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constant-amplitude loading

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 19
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1996
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v19.a0002382
EISBN: 978-1-62708-193-1
... factors to analyze any fracture or crack growth problem. It describes the integration of crack growth rates in terms of constant-amplitude loading and cycle-by-cycle counting with variable-amplitude loading. The article concludes with information on the classification of sources of error in damage...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 19
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1996
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v19.a0002370
EISBN: 978-1-62708-193-1
... about a mean load S m . (a) The alternating load plotted vs. time. (b) Fracture for one specimen plotted vs. the number of cycles, N. (c) Fractures for ten specimens at one constant level of alternating load S a plotted vs. N Fig. 2 Variable-amplitude loading and schematic of data...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003382
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... Laminate S - N curves at several R -ratios and spectrum loading Fig. 8 Residual strength, R(n ), relation for constant amplitude loading. R 0 is the original static tensile or compressive strength; S p is the peak stress magnitude; v is a strength degradation parameter. Fig...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005419
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... rotating shaft having a slight misalignment will see a simple, fully reversed, constant-amplitude load cycle each revolution of the shaft. The wing on an aircraft will see a simple load cycle each flight due to a change in loading, wherein the fuselage supports the wing when the aircraft is on the ground...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 8
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v08.a0003318
EISBN: 978-1-62708-176-4
... total life philosophy for fatigue life prediction is based on an endurance limit established from stress-log cycle plots, also known as S - N curves. In these tests, uncracked specimens are subjected to a constant amplitude load cycle until failure occurs. Often fatigue tests are performed on closed...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 19
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1996
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v19.a0002365
EISBN: 978-1-62708-193-1
...: no yielding (a), local yielding (b), and fully plastic yielding (c). Source: Ref 1 (p 594) Fig. 19 Steps required in strain-based life prediction for a notched member under constant amplitude loading. Source: Ref 1 (p 648) Fig. 20 Life prediction for an irregular load versus time...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 19
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1996
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v19.a0002350
EISBN: 978-1-62708-193-1
... features to these difficulties. Certainly verification of life estimations should be considered an important activity to confirm the calculations. For the sake of brevity, we limit our discussion to constant-amplitude loading. Often, variable-amplitude loading is necessary to correctly replicate...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003516
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... for Testing and Materials , 1976 , p 157 – 171 28. Bell P.D. and Wolfman A. , Equivalent Constant Amplitude Concept for Crack Growth under Spectrum Loading , Fatigue Crack Growth under Spectrum Loads , STP 595, American Society for Testing and Materials , 1976 , p 236 – 250 29...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 8
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v08.a0003313
EISBN: 978-1-62708-176-4
... follow the safe-life, infinite-life approach. The advantages of this method are simplicity and ease of application, and it can offer some initial perspective on a given situation. It is best applied in or near the elastic range, addressing constant-amplitude loading situations in what has been called...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 19
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1996
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v19.a0002366
EISBN: 978-1-62708-193-1
... of LEFM or EPFM concepts diminishes even further under multiaxial loading conditions. The data in Fig. 6(a) and 6(b) clearly illustrate some important aspects of multiaxial fatigue crack growth for constant-amplitude loading of two ductile alloys in tension-compression and in torsion. The curved...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003386
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... and the laminate collapses. Fig. 7 Typical load cycle response for constant amplitude versus spectrum-loading fatigue testing. R = 10.0 (compression-compression). Fig. 8 Impact energy versus dent depth with energy and visibility cut-off limits. Source: Ref 4 Fig. 9 Test set-up...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 8
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v08.a0009217
EISBN: 978-1-62708-176-4
..., result from variable amplitude loading rather than constant-amplitude loading. Before a crack growth calculation can be made, a representation of the variable-amplitude stress history that summarizes the history in terms of a sequence of complete stress cycles in proper order is necessary. Two distinct...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 19
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1996
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v19.a0002356
EISBN: 978-1-62708-193-1
... Tolerance in Aircraft Structures , STP 486, ASTM , 1971 , p 230 – 242 17. Kumar R. , Review on Crack Closure for Constant Amplitude Loading in Fatigue , Eng.Fract. Mech. , Vol 42 , 1992 , p 389 – 400 10.1016/0013-7944(92)90228-7 18. Ritchie R.O. and Suresh S...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02b.a0006549
EISBN: 978-1-62708-210-5
... like the S - N curve, where the fatigue life increases with a decrease in the strain amplitude ( Fig. 19 ). The total strain range (Δε) consists of an elastic strain component (Δε e = Δσ/ E ) and a plastic strain component (Δε p ). For tests conducted under constant strain range (Δε), the stress...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 20
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1997
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v20.a0002469
EISBN: 978-1-62708-194-8
... amplitude of 0.008 (ε e = (ε 2 + γ 2 /3) 1/2 ), where γ is the engineering shear strain at a constant effective strain rate of 3 × 10 −4 1/s. Pure axial cycling and pure torsional cycling tests were performed in the first and second test, respectively. In the third test, torsion and axial loading...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 19
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1996
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v19.a0002369
EISBN: 978-1-62708-193-1
..., there may be considerable uncertainty in how accurately those models predict lifetime. The model accuracy is heavily obscured by the tremendous scatter in fatigue lives, which is apparent under constant-amplitude loading where there is no need for a model. The accuracy of the Miner's rule model has been...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 19
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1996
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v19.a0002392
EISBN: 978-1-62708-193-1
.... Testing a material under constant amplitude (often at R = −1, A = ∞) can be used to define a fatigue limit. For low-strength steels, the data points on an S / N curve tend to approach an asymptote as the number of cycles becomes large. The stress value corresponding to this region is referred...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 19
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1996
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v19.a0002406
EISBN: 978-1-62708-193-1
..., if a combination of σ and a were to exceed a critical value K c , then the crack would be expected to propagate. Tests on precracked specimens of a wide variety of materials have shown that the critical K value at the onset of crack extension approaches a constant value as specimen thickness increases...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006779
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... loading. The S - N curve is the basis for fatigue design and shows the relationship between a constant stress amplitude, S a (or stress range, Δ S ), and the number of cycles to failure, N . The regions of the curve can be separated into the quasi-static, finite-life, and infinite-life regimes...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 8
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v08.a0003317
EISBN: 978-1-62708-176-4
... cycles ( N ) if the load amplitude (Δ P ), load ratio ( R ), and cyclic frequency (ν), are held constant. The da / dN increases as the crack length increases during a given test. The da / dN is also higher at any given crack length for tests conducted at higher load amplitudes. Thus, the following...