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constant-amplitude fatigue crack initiation

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 19
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1996
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v19.a0002398
EISBN: 978-1-62708-193-1
...; plane-stress fracture toughness; plane-strain fracture toughness; constant-amplitude fatigue crack initiation and growth; and variable-amplitude fatigue crack initiation and growth. References 1. Steel Castings Handbook , 6th ed. , Steel Founders' Society of America and ASM International...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 19
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1996
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v19.a0002356
EISBN: 978-1-62708-193-1
... Fig. 6 Growth rates of small and large cracks plotted together as a function of Δ K. CA , constant amplitude. Source: Replotted in Ref 8 from AGARD Report No. 732, 1988 Fig. 7 Subsurface crack nucleation at inclusion, erroneously suggesting initial fast crack growth. Source: Ref 9...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 8
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v08.a0003313
EISBN: 978-1-62708-176-4
... follow the safe-life, infinite-life approach. The advantages of this method are simplicity and ease of application, and it can offer some initial perspective on a given situation. It is best applied in or near the elastic range, addressing constant-amplitude loading situations in what has been called...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 19
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1996
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v19.a0002350
EISBN: 978-1-62708-193-1
... of the critical effects on the fatigue of component details. Source: Ref 22 Fig. 8 Typical fatigue-strength curves for several polymers (30 Hz test frequency). Source: Ref 23 Fig. 9 Stress-strain hysteresis in a constant-amplitude strain-controlled fatigue test. Source: Ref 32...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 19
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1996
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v19.a0002366
EISBN: 978-1-62708-193-1
... of LEFM or EPFM concepts diminishes even further under multiaxial loading conditions. The data in Fig. 6(a) and 6(b) clearly illustrate some important aspects of multiaxial fatigue crack growth for constant-amplitude loading of two ductile alloys in tension-compression and in torsion. The curved...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 8
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v08.a0003318
EISBN: 978-1-62708-176-4
.... It is implied in this defect-tolerant approach that all structural components are intrinsically flawed with an initial crack size, a i . Assuming the fatigue loading is performed under constant stress amplitude conditions, the geometric factor, f (α), does not change within the limits of integration...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 20
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1997
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v20.a0002469
EISBN: 978-1-62708-194-8
... on specific planes on the surface of the material and the maximum shear strain range and/or normal strains on these planes. An overview is given in Ref 61 for constant amplitude loading. This approach deals in essence with the life to crack initiation, and crack growth is not included. Increasingly...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003382
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... Structures, Part I: Constant Amplitude and Two Stress Level Fatigue Loading, and Part II: Spectrum Fatigue Loading , J. Compos. Mater. , Vol 31 ( No. 2 ), 1997 , p 128 – 181 19. Shyprykevich P. , The Role of Statistical Data Reduction in the Development of Design Allowables for Composites...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02b.a0006549
EISBN: 978-1-62708-210-5
... like the S - N curve, where the fatigue life increases with a decrease in the strain amplitude ( Fig. 19 ). The total strain range (Δε) consists of an elastic strain component (Δε e = Δσ/ E ) and a plastic strain component (Δε p ). For tests conducted under constant strain range (Δε), the stress...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003668
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... 49 Fig. 12 Modeled effect of loading frequency on corrosion-fatigue crack growth in alloy steels in an aqueous chloride solution. The determination of the normalized crack growth rate and the time constants, τ 0 , from the model can be found in Ref 50 . Fig. 2 Nomenclature used...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 19
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1996
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v19.a0002353
EISBN: 978-1-62708-193-1
... cyclic softening for this treatment. The cycles to fatigue crack initiation in a notched specimen were more than ten times greater for the latter treatment at a nominal stress amplitude of 196 MN/m 2 . Source: Ref 16 Fig. 3 Maximum compressive stress, Δσ/2, versus cycles at a constant strain...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 19
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1996
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v19.a0002364
EISBN: 978-1-62708-193-1
... a in zero-mean constant amplitude test, σ a = true stress amplitude. 2 N f = reversals to failure (1 cycle = 2 reversals). σ′ f = fatigue-strength coefficient. b = fatigue-strength exponent (Basquin's exponent). The parameters σ′ f and b are fatigue properties of the metal. The fatigue strength...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 19
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1996
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v19.a0002363
EISBN: 978-1-62708-193-1
..., a scanned image is built up. Fatigue crack images of an Al-20%Si plain bearing alloy that failed in fatigue have been recorded using SAM ( Ref 9 ). The direct potential (DP) method uses the changing potential distribution around a growing crack when a constant direct current is passed through...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 19
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1996
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v19.a0002365
EISBN: 978-1-62708-193-1
.... , Constant Amplitude and Cumulative Damage Fatigue Tests on Bailey Bridges , Effects of Environment and Complex Load History on Fatigue Life , STP 462, ASTM , 1970 , p 15 – 39 10.1520/STP32033S 3. Juvinall R.C. , Stress, Strain, and Strength , McGraw-Hill , 1967 4. Juvinall R.C...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 19
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1996
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v19.a0002354
EISBN: 978-1-62708-193-1
... the courses of σ and ε (ε pl ) vs. time. Fig. 3 Primary quantities of the hysteresis loop Fig. 4 Schematic representation of transient cyclic deformation processes. Source: Ref 16 Fig. 5 Schematic representation of cyclic deformation curves for tests where (a) Δσ/2 is constant...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006779
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... loading. The S - N curve is the basis for fatigue design and shows the relationship between a constant stress amplitude, S a (or stress range, Δ S ), and the number of cycles to failure, N . The regions of the curve can be separated into the quasi-static, finite-life, and infinite-life regimes...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006829
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... amplitude is constant (i.e., Q * = μ × P ), whereas the (δ − Q ) fretting hysteresis displays a large dissipative open quadratic loop shape. Stabilized gross slip conditions not only favor surface wear by debris formation and debris ejection but also decrease the cracking risk by removing the incipient...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 8
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v08.a0003314
EISBN: 978-1-62708-176-4
... amplitude or strain range to obtain a fatigue curve. The fatigue properties quoted for an alloy are typically the constants used in the equation(s) that describe the fatigue curve. Fatigue lives of interest may be as low as 10 2 or higher than 10 9 cycles. Because of the enormous scatter associated...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 19
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1996
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v19.a0002406
EISBN: 978-1-62708-193-1
..., if a combination of σ and a were to exceed a critical value K c , then the crack would be expected to propagate. Tests on precracked specimens of a wide variety of materials have shown that the critical K value at the onset of crack extension approaches a constant value as specimen thickness increases...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003544
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... − S min . The stress amplitude, S a , is one-half the range of stress, S a = S r /2 = ( S max − S min )/2. During a fatigue test, the stress cycle is usually maintained constant, so that the applied stress conditions can be written S m ± S a , where S m is the static or mean stress...