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constant true stress

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0009003
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... = σ 0 + K ε n where σ 0 is the yield stress, and K and n are the same constants as in Eq 22 . This equation may be more satisfying than Eq 22 , because the latter implies that at zero true strain, the stress is zero. It has been shown that σ 0 can be obtained from the intercept of...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006780
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
...). Andrade’s experiments also revealed the importance of running creep tests under a constant stress instead of a constant load. Each of these early studies on creep revealed a change in the creep response of a material as a function of time. Some key material properties at high temperature are thermal...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006632
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... residual-stress measurement is widely used, stress is an extrinsic property that is not directly measurable. All methods of stress determination require measurement of some intrinsic properties, such as strain and elastic constants, or force and area, from which the associated stress is calculated. X-ray...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006451
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... ∂ σ i j ∂ T ⋅ Δ ε i j + Q ρ C E where T is the absolute temperature of the material, C E is the specific heat at constant strain, ρ is the density, σ ij is the stress tensor, ε ij is the strain tensor, and Q is the heat input. In most TSA experiments...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006252
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
... cooling from the heat treatment temperature to the quenchant temperature generates a tensile core surrounded by an enclosing case of material stressed into compression. The magnitude of the surface stresses has been shown to increase with thickness up to a value that then remains constant. This value...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006767
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... criterion, which is based on a determination of distortion energy at yield and recognizes that in a constant-volume isotropic material, hydrostatic stresses cannot cause failure by yield. An octahedral shear-stress criterion provides a mathematically identical expression to the von Mises criterion...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001298
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... + ( σ max − σ min ) B cos 2 α where σ max and σ min are maximum and minimum principal residual stresses, and α is the angle from the gage axis to the maximum principal stress direction. A and B are calibration constants, the values of which depend on the specimen material...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006768
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... + σ 22 + σ 33 )         +   ½ S 2 ( σ 13 cos ϕ + σ 23 sin ϕ ) sin2 ψ where ½ S 2 and S 1 are the x-ray elastic constants of the material, variations of σ ij are the stress-tensor components, φ is the angle of the direction of strain...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005654
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
... Abstract This article describes some of the mechanical/ electrochemical phenomena related to the in vivo degradation of metals used for biomedical applications. It discusses the properties and failure of these materials as they relate to stress-corrosion cracking (SCC) and corrosion fatigue (CF...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005947
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... Formation of bainite from austenite Formation of pearlite from austenite The proportionality constant between the amount of transformation plasticity and stress deviator depends on the type of transformation ( Ref 9 ). Figure 12 shows the length changes of samples from steel grade SAE 4140H...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006785
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... factor exceeds the threshold stress intensity, K ISCC . Stage 2 represents a plateau at intermediate values of crack tip stress-intensity factor. In stage 2, the crack growth is essentially constant over a range of crack tip stress-intensity factors. The actual crack-growth rate during stage 2 crack...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003243
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... extension test constant load test hydrogen embrittlement precracked specimen testing smooth specimen testing strain-rate test stress-corrosion cracking STRESS-CORROSION CRACKING (SCC) is a cracking phenomenon that occurs in susceptible alloys and is caused by the conjoint action of a...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005257
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... relative to the rotating mold. For example, with a vertical mold axis, the resultant force on the liquid is constant. This is not the case in a horizontal mold. The other difference between horizontal and vertical mold orientation is the speed obtained by the molten metal as it spins around the mold. When...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0001837
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... Geometry of image formation in the scanning electron microscope The magnification is defined as the ratio of the image distance to the object distance. In the case of an irregular surface, the object distance is not constant. Consequently, high points have higher magnification than low points on the...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003038
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... Abstract Pultrusion is an automated process for manufacturing composite materials into continuous, constant cross-sectional profiles. The article provides an overview of the pultrusion process and the wide range of materials that can be used to provide a broad spectrum of composite properties...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003026
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... methods used to determine the following dielectric properties of plastics: dielectric breakdown voltage, dielectric strength, dielectric constant, dissipation factor, arc tracking resistance, insulation resistance, volume, and surface resistivity or conductivity. The test specifications and conditions...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003241
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... Abstract This article reviews the various types of mechanical testing methods, including hardness testing; tension testing; compression testing; dynamic fracture testing; fracture toughness testing; fatigue life testing; fatigue crack growth testing; and creep, stress-rupture, and stress...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005413
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... scaling stress, chosen here as σ v . θ 0 /μ is a true constant, while the scaling stress σ v = σ v ( ε ˙ , T ) , which is also proportional to μ( T ), depends in addition on strain rate and temperature through thermal activation. Details of the nature of the recovery mechanisms...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0001831
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... conditions of reasonably constant cyclic loading frequency and advancing within the nominal range of 10 −5 to 10 −3 mm/cycle, [1] the crack growth rate, da/dN , can be expressed as a function of the stress intensity factor K ( Ref 15 , 31 , 32 ): (Eq 1) d a d N = C ( Δ K ) m...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005936
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... the transformation plasticity, Fig. 30(a) shows the experimentally determined residual stress state as well as the result when using the model incorporating a constant value of K (standard model) and the model proposed in the section “Transformation Plasticity.” The numerically determined depth...