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Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003243
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... determine the susceptibility of alloys to SCC and hydrogen embrittlement, several types of testing are available. This article describes the constant extension testing, constant load testing, constant strain-rate testing for smooth specimens and precracked or notched specimens of SCC. It provides...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006779
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... variation in stress, which corresponds with static loading. The S - N curve is the basis for fatigue design and shows the relationship between a constant stress amplitude, S a (or stress range, Δ S ), and the number of cycles to failure, N . The regions of the curve can be separated into the quasi...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003990
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... that uses two or more radially moving anvils or dies to produce solid or tubular components with constant or varying cross sections along their lengths. This article focuses on the workpiece configuration, workpiece materials, machines, dies, advantages, and limitations of radial forging. It concludes...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003038
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... Abstract Pultrusion is an automated process for manufacturing composite materials into continuous, constant cross-sectional profiles. The article provides an overview of the pultrusion process and the wide range of materials that can be used to provide a broad spectrum of composite properties...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003842
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... Abstract This article examines the high-temperature oxidation of silica-forming ceramics under constant temperature and cyclic conditions. The effects of water vapor, impurities, and molten salts are discussed. The article describes the oxidation and corrosion of silica-forming composites...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003026
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... methods used to determine the following dielectric properties of plastics: dielectric breakdown voltage, dielectric strength, dielectric constant, dissipation factor, arc tracking resistance, insulation resistance, volume, and surface resistivity or conductivity. The test specifications and conditions...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005419
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... rotating shaft having a slight misalignment will see a simple, fully reversed, constant-amplitude load cycle each revolution of the shaft. The wing on an aircraft will see a simple load cycle each flight due to a change in loading, wherein the fuselage supports the wing when the aircraft is on the ground...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005654
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
... biomaterials in surgical implant applications, such as orthopedic, cardiovascular surgery, and dentistry. It addresses the key issues related to simulation of the in vivo environment, service conditions, and data interpretation. Theses include frequency of dynamic loading, electrolyte chemistry, applicable...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006776
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... stress intensity and slower at points of lower stress intensity, tending toward a shape with uniform stress-intensity distribution. Under uniform tensile loading, in the absence of other factors, the stress-intensity factor is constant along the front of a surface crack with approximately semicircular...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006451
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... article, and this load must be applied at a magnitude and at a rate such that adiabatic conditions are met. From a test perspective, not all materials have the same stress sensitivity, which for an isotropic material depends on both the thermoelastic constant and the ambient temperature. Based on an IR...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006781
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... as: (Eq 7) e − ( Q − a σ H RT ) where Q is an activation energy, a is a mechanism-specific constant, and σ H is a stress resulting from the application of mechanical load. In the case of stress-assisted oxidation, σ H is the hydrostatic stress, and the coupled...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006791
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... modes of adhesive wear including scoring, scuffing, seizure, and galling, and describes the processes involved in classic laboratory-type and standardized tests for the evaluation of adhesive wear. It includes information on standardized galling tests, twist compression, slider-on-flat-surface, load...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006761
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... indenter that allows testing of harder materials, such as high-strength steels. The Rockwell hardness test differs from Brinell hardness testing in that the hardness is determined by the depth of indentation made by a constant load impressed upon an indenter. Rockwell hardness testing is the most...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005653
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
... nature of these metal surfaces and their propensity for corrosion reactions when combined with similar or different alloys in complex restrictive environments within the human body, and under loading conditions. The article describes factors that influence mechanically assisted crevice corrosion. It...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003974
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... given friction losses, elastic deflection properties, and available flywheel energy, the load available at the end of the stroke depends mainly on the deformation energy required by the process. Therefore, for constant flywheel energy, low deformation energy E p results in high-end load L M , and...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006784
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... or to distinguish between hydrogen damage and SCC. One method of distinguishing between hydrogen embrittlement and SCC is to note the effect of small impressed electric currents on time to failure in a constant-load test. If cracking has occurred by a stress-corrosion mechanism, application of a...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006775
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... and fracture. Next, the mechanisms of void nucleation and void coalescence are briefly described. Macroscale and microscale appearances of ductile and brittle fracture are then discussed for various specimen geometries (smooth cylindrical and prismatic) and loading conditions (e.g., tension...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006273
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
... Abstract Aluminum and its alloys are characterized by their low hardness and less satisfactory tribological performance. These limits can be overcome by means of load-specific surface engineering. This article provides information on the structure and properties of nitrided layers, and the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006252
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
... examines how quench-induced residual stresses in heat treatable aluminum alloys are reduced when sufficient load is applied to cause plastic deformation. The article also shows how plastic deformation reduces residual stress. aluminum alloys heat treatment plastic deformation quenching residual...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003051
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... applications. As an example, common applications for structural clay include facing materials, load-bearing units, pavers, and ceramic tiles. building materials concrete enamels glazes portland cements structural clay products traditional ceramics whiteware The term traditional ceramic...