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condensate-feedwater system

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004152
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... problems associated with common feedwater heater tube materials. air-cooled condensers condensate-feedwater system corrosion deaerators erosion-corroison channel feedwater heaters header feedwater heaters galvanic corrosion pitting corrosion power plants water-cooled condensers tube...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004154
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... ), on the metal surface generally impedes further reaction. Such protective oxide films are maintained and corrosion prevented by appropriate control of boiler water chemistry. However, excessive impurities in boiler feedwater can prevent effective control, form harmful deposits, and aggravate corrosion. Although...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003701
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... Corrosion in condensate/feedwater systems occurs because of low pH induced by carbonic acid, resulting from the reaction of water with CO 2 gas coming from the boiler. The CO 2 may originate from condenser air-inleakage or bicarbonate alkalinity in the feedwater. The buildup of the acid reduces...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004133
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... prevention, and higher cycle efficiency ( Ref 6 ). There are three basic steps in controlling the water chemistry: removal of impurities (in makeup water, feedwater, and condensate), control of feedwater pH, and boiler water treatments (for once-through systems, these are feedwater treatments). Impurity...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001816
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., composition of fuel, amount of excess combustion air, type and amount of water-conditioning chemicals added, type and amount of contaminants in condensate and make-up feedwater, frequency and methods of cleaning fire-side and water-side surfaces of steam generators, materials specified as to alloy...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004155
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... in Supercritical Water—Ultrasupercritical Environments for Power Production” in this Volume. Steam is often extracted from the turbine for heating of feedwater and used in industrial processes. It is exhausted as wet subatmospheric steam, with up to 12% moisture ( Fig. 7 ), into a condenser or at higher than...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006825
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
.... The discussion is mainly concerned with failures in Rankine cycle systems that use fossil fuels as the primary heat source. In a Rankine cycle system, the steam is generated in a boiler, followed by its expansion in the prime mover and condensation in the condenser; finally, it is fed into the boiler again...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004121
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... in the Condensate-Feedwater System” in this Volume and “Corrosion Inhibitors in the Water Treatment Industry” in ASM Handbook , Vol 13A, 2003.) Military installations are limited in the choice of the chemicals they can use for treating steam/condensate systems, because their steam, unlike the steam in many...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004124
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... cooling water systems incorporating cooling towers), (b) residual contamination from chemical cleaning, and (c) the inadvertent release of acidic chemicals into the feedwater system. A mechanism for concentrating acid-producing salts (DNB, deposits, waterline evaporation) must be present to provide...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003621
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... 3 ). A strong cationic primary coagulant (amine) was used to aid the filtering of colloidal material. Treated water was blended with condensate containing 5 ppm of a filming amine corrosion inhibitor. Final chemistry of the feedwater was controlled to the concentration limits given in Table 4...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05b.a0006035
EISBN: 978-1-62708-172-6
... systems. The consequences of debris generation can lead to flow blockage, essential heat transfer reduction, or both. Fig. 5 Coating water box tube sheet in a Level III area Level III coatings exist as lining systems applied to metal substrates in raw or condensate-quality water systems...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006813
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
..., and regenerative), flow arrangement (e.g., single-pass counterflow), and heat-transfer mechanism (e.g., single- or two-phase convection, such as in condensers or boilers). Tubular heat exchangers are generally used for large fluid systems, whereas heat exchangers of plate or sheet construction are often preferred...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004145
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... structures (e.g., condensers, steam turbines, feedwater heaters, etc.) is covered in the Section “Corrosion in Fossil and Alternative Fuel Industries.” Background to Problem Most currently operating BWRs are direct-cycle systems. That is, water boils in traversing the fuel channels in the core...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004146
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... those of BWRs. A schematic diagram of a typical PWR is shown in Fig. 1 . Fig. 1 Basic flow diagram of a pressurized water reactor (PWR) nuclear power station Materials Used In the PWR, a high pressure of the order of 14 MPa (∼2250 psi) is applied to the primary system to prevent...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003816
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... (Cu-10Ni) is often selected because it offers good resistance at lower cost. Both of these alloys, although well suited to applications in the chemical industry, have been most extensively used for condenser tubes and heat-exchanger tubes in recirculating steam systems. They are superior to coppers...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003137
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... to applications in the chemical industry, have been most extensively used for condenser tubes and heat-exchanger tubes in recirculating steam systems. They are superior to coppers and to other copper alloys in resisting acid solutions and are highly resistant to SCC and impingement corrosion. Nickel Silvers...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001817
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., and aluminum were the major constituents. Fig. 4 Failed aluminum brass condenser tube from a saltwater heat exchanger. The tube failed from pitting caused by hydrogen sulfide and chlorides in the feedwater. (a) Cross section of tube showing deep pits and excessive metal wastage. 2 3 4 ×. (b...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006783
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... current flows between them because of the inherent electrical potential difference between the two. The resulting reaction is referred to as couple action, and the electrically coupled system is known as a galvanic cell. The dissimilar metals/materials couple consists of an anode (which liberates...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004211
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
..., fire resistance need not be considered for cooling-water or instrument-air systems. Although petrochemical plants may include some processes that involve nonflammable or nonhazardous streams, most equipment must be resistant to fires. For example, lack of fire resistance rules out the use...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003553
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... mechanical tests. Microscopically, the fracture mode for SCC is usually different from the fracture mode for plane-strain fractures in the same alloy. There appears to be a threshold stress below which SCC does not occur, at least in some systems. The passage of time has not negated...