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concrete mixes

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003843
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
..., which make it the most abundant construction material in the world. In the United States more than 300 million m 3 (400 million yd 3 ) of ready-mixed concrete is used each year in airports, roads, bridges, stadiums, low- and high-rise buildings, dams, homes, and numerous other structures. Concrete...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004220
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... concrete that is subjected to chloride infiltration from the external surface, corrosion has been found to initiate on the steel when the chloride level reaches between 0.02 and 0.04% by weight of concrete at the concrete/steel interface. When the chloride is present in the mix, the tricalcium aluminate...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004168
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
...) concrete mix designs. Fly ash, a by-product from burning coal, is a pozzolanic material that can be used to replace cement. Pozzolans are finely divided mineral additions, or mineral admixtures, that, when mixed with calcium hydroxide, alkalis, and water, produce a cementitious material. Good mix designs...
Image
Published: 01 January 2005
Fig. 1 Range in proportions of materials used in concrete (by absolute volume). Mixes 1 and 3 represent rich mixes with small-size aggregates. Mixes 2 and 4 represent lean mixes with large-size aggregates. More
Image
Published: 31 August 2017
Fig. 31 A variety of Ni-Hard 1 (ASTM I-A) castings used in aggregate processing, concrete pipemaking, and placement and mixing applications. The center mixing wheel is 38.1 cm (15 in.) in diameter and weighs approximately 22 kg (50 lb). Courtesy of Texaloy Foundry Co. More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05b.a0006072
EISBN: 978-1-62708-172-6
... alkaline as a result of the dissolution of calcium hydroxide, a component of concrete, by the water used for its mixing and placement. In the newly placed concrete, the water within the freshly cured concrete has a pH in the range of approximately 12.5 to 13.5. Steel does not corrode in alkaline...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05b.a0006037
EISBN: 978-1-62708-172-6
...Abstract Abstract Polymeric floor coatings refer to flooring materials composed of multicomponent thermoset resins formulated with various fillers and pigments that are installed in situ, usually over concrete substrates. Polymeric flooring systems, specified for all industrial and commercial...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003684
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
...Abstract Abstract Inorganic chemical-setting ceramic linings are one of the most widely used construction materials in designing the protective linings for industrial installations. Monolithic linings can be applied by cast or gunite (shotcreting) methods over steel or concrete as well as brick...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003051
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... ); however, excess bloating reduces strength and produces floating aggregates in the concrete mixture. Specifications for aggregate call for loose-fill densities of mixed sizes of 1.0 g/cm 3 (65 lb/ft 3 ) ( Ref 11 ). The loose-fill method includes pores in the space between aggregate particles. Chemically...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003840
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
...Abstract Abstract This article provides an overview of the environmental performance of the most commonly used nonmetallic materials, including elastomers, plastics, thermosetting resins, resin-matrix composites, organic coatings, concrete, refractories, and ceramics. It also discusses...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05b.a0006059
EISBN: 978-1-62708-172-6
... carbon steel copper copper alloys corrosion control ductile iron ferrous metals localized corrosion microbiologically influenced corrosion municipal wastewater systems protective coatings reinforced concrete pipes wastewater treatment THE PURPOSE OF THIS ARTICLE is to acquaint the reader...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05b.a0006016
EISBN: 978-1-62708-172-6
..., and chemical contaminants. When inspecting concrete prior to coating installation, three areas of concern exist: surface roughness, moisture content in concrete, and acidity/alkalinity of the surface. The article provides information on the industry standards for assessing surface cleanliness. It details...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05b.a0006040
EISBN: 978-1-62708-172-6
... of protective coatings in these municipal water systems. The most commonplace corrosion-damage mechanisms are highlighted. The article describes the most common materials of construction found in municipal water systems, namely, cast iron, ductile iron, carbon steel, precast concrete cylinder pipe...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05b.a0006047
EISBN: 978-1-62708-172-6
...Abstract Abstract Two-component polyurea elastomeric coating/lining systems are the newest technology in the protective coating/lining industry and a wide variety of applications have been developed. These include coating/lining applications over concrete, geotextile membranes, various metals...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003453
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... and 32 °C (40 and 90 °F), the relative humidity is less than 90%, the concrete surface temperature is more than 2 °C (5 °F) above the dew point, and the concrete moisture content is dry (moisture content is less than 4%). Elapsed time between mixing and application of the first ply and also between any...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05b.a0006014
EISBN: 978-1-62708-172-6
...Abstract Abstract This article reviews the various substrates for coatings, namely, steel, cast iron, galvanized steel, aluminum, stainless steel, nonferrous metals, concrete, and wood. General guidance for surface preparation and coating selection is provided along with unique requirements...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05b.a0006077
EISBN: 978-1-62708-172-6
... properties of the system. A concern with many waterborne epoxy coatings is that they do not have a detectable end of pot life. They stay fluid, so the applicator may continue to use the mixed paint beyond the useful pot life, thus degrading gloss and other performance properties. However, the previously...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003805
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
...Abstract Abstract This article discusses the environmental factors and kinetics of atmospheric corrosion, aqueous corrosion, and soil corrosion of carbon steels. It also provides information on corrosion in concrete and steel boilers. aqueous corrosion atmospheric corrosion concrete...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05b.a0006051
EISBN: 978-1-62708-172-6
... but are slow drying; short-oil alkyds are fast drying. Temperature resistant to 105 °C (225 °F) Not chemically resistant; not suitable for application over alkaline surfaces, such as fresh concrete, or for water immersion Long-oil alkyds make excellent primers for rusted and pitted steel and wooden surfaces...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05b.a0006024
EISBN: 978-1-62708-172-6
... a description of the Society for Protective Coatings' (SSPC) standards and NACE International standards as well as the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) standards and International Concrete Repair Institute (ICRI) guidelines for surface cleanliness. blast cleaning extraction grinding...