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computer-controlled hammers

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003973
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... to process refinements that give engineers much greater control over the final microstructural and mechanical properties. Computerized hammer controls allow unique processing schemes to be developed for optimum results through computer process modeling. Processing step combinations (blow energy, inter...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003183
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
..., precision forging, and cold forging. computer-aided design die design forging processes materials selection types of hammers types of presses Hammers and Presses for Forging FORGING MACHINES fall into three categories according to their method of operation. Mechanical forging presses...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003979
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... of friction and lubrication in forging. It discusses the types of closed-die forgings, namely, blocker-type, conventional, and close-tolerance. The article illustrates the classification of forging shapes and explains how to predict the forging pressure and the control of die temperature during closed-die...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02a.a0006493
EISBN: 978-1-62708-207-5
.... Postforging cold work is performed by coining to control size and residual stress in critical applications. Aluminum is generally forged on hydraulic presses due to the high strain-rate sensitivity of aluminum alloys. The use of hammers and mechanical presses is the exception rather than the rule. Ram...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003996
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
..., the complexity and tolerances of the open-die forging of aluminum and other materials depended on the skill of the press operator; however, with the advent of programmable computer-controlled open-die forging presses, it is possible to produce such shapes to overall thickness/width tolerances bands of 1.27 mm...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003971
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... materials, such as intermetallic alloys and composites, have been developed. Furthermore, the advent of user-friendly computer codes and inexpensive computers has led to a revolution in the application of numerical methods for the design and control of a plethora of bulk-forming processes, thus leading...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003981
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... required in subsequent forging in closed dies in either a press or hammer, thus eliminating a fullering or blocking operation. Crankshafts, control arms (see Fig. 1 ), connecting rods, and other automotive parts are typical products that are first roll forged from billets to preform stock, and then finish...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003978
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
...” in this article. Hammers and Presses Because the length of the hammer ram stroke and the magnitude of the force must be controllable over a wide range throughout the forging cycle, gravity-drop hammers and most mechanical presses are not suitable for open-die forging. Power forging hammers (air or steam...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14b.a0005154
EISBN: 978-1-62708-186-3
... Controlled Spherical Rollers , Trans. Jpn. Soc. Mech. Eng. , Vol C59 , 1994 , p 2849 – 2854 (in Japanese) 6. Nakajima N. , Computerizing of Traditional Sheet Metal Forming , Trans. Jpn. Soc. Tech. Plasticity , Vol 20 , 1979 , p 686 – 700 (in Japanese) 7. Hasebe T. and Shima...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 18
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v18.a0006359
EISBN: 978-1-62708-192-4
... from computer boards to oilshale, tool wear is a concern of economy. In the chattering of tubes carrying liquid wastes from nuclear reactors, safety and reliability are most important. In most of the above applications, impact occurs with a component of sliding, compounding the relative normal...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14b.9781627081863
EISBN: 978-1-62708-186-3
Book Chapter

By Robert Bolin
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003982
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... Example of two large contour rings Extreme Cross Sections Due to dramatic advances in ring rolling computer control, an increasing number of extreme washer and sleeve-type rings are being rolled. For washers, wall thickness-to-height ratios of 20 to 1 are common, and using specially prepared...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003993
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... of trial and error. Currently, the use of computer-aided design (CAD), manufacture, and engineering is particularly significant in the accurate modeling and control of temperature and deformation, which can dramatically affect the grain size and final mechanical properties of forged superalloys...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003980
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... sockets that require simultaneous upsetting and piercing. Forgings that require center upsets (not at bar end) or offset upsets can also be made. In many cases, hot upsetting is used as a means of preparing stock for subsequent forging on a hammer or in a press. Hot upsetting is also occasionally used...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004000
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
..., such as hammers, mechanical/screw presses, and hydraulic presses. Spin Forging Spin forging can also be used in titanium alloy forging fabrication, as with aluminum and other materials. This technique combines closed-die forging and computer numerically controlled (CNC) spin forgers and achieves very close...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003987
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
.... closed-die forging coining composite metals copper dimensional control hammers lubricants steels surface finish COINING is a closed-die forging operation, usually performed cold, in which all surfaces of the workpiece are confined or restrained, resulting in a well-defined imprint of the die...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14b.a0005146
EISBN: 978-1-62708-186-3
.... Superplastic forming is similar to vacuum forming of plastics. A computer system is used to control the gas pressure so that the part forms into the cavity at a constant strain rate. The Ti-6Al-4V material is generally used for this process; however, there are other alloys that work. The material needs to have...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 09 June 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04c.a0005888
EISBN: 978-1-62708-167-2
... Computer-modeled dynamics of induction heating Ti-6Al-4V billet in a static vertical inductor using line frequency (60 Hz). Source: Ref 18 Fig. 26 Four-modular billet heating system. Source: Ref 2 Fig. 27 Power and coil modules can be combined inline to form a heating line and added...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003453
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
..., nondestructive testing of the structure is used to verify the strength of the concrete and the location of the reinforcement. The quality of the concrete can be investigated using acoustic impact (e.g., chain dragging), rebound hammers (Schmidt Hammer shown in Fig. 1 ), and penetration resistance (Windsor Probe...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22b.9781627081979
EISBN: 978-1-62708-197-9