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computer-controlled hammers

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003973
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... to process refinements that give engineers much greater control over the final microstructural and mechanical properties. Computerized hammer controls allow unique processing schemes to be developed for optimum results through computer process modeling. Processing step combinations (blow energy, inter...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003183
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
..., precision forging, and cold forging. computer-aided design die design forging processes materials selection types of hammers types of presses Hammers and Presses for Forging FORGING MACHINES fall into three categories according to their method of operation. Mechanical forging presses...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003979
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... cannot be used for mechanical press or hammer forging even if die and billet temperatures are comparable. In forging, the ideal lubricant is expected to: Reduce sliding friction between the dies and the forging in order to reduce pressure requirements, to fill the die cavity, and to control...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003996
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... of aluminum and other materials depended on the skill of the press operator; however, with the advent of programmable computer-controlled open-die forging presses, it is possible to produce such shapes to overall thickness/width tolerances bands of 1.27 mm (0.050 in.). Because the open-die forging of aluminum...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02a.a0006493
EISBN: 978-1-62708-207-5
... to control size and residual stress in critical applications. Aluminum is generally forged on hydraulic presses due to the high strain-rate sensitivity of aluminum alloys. The use of hammers and mechanical presses is the exception rather than the rule. Ram speeds are generally on the slow side, with 2.54...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003971
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... materials, such as intermetallic alloys and composites, have been developed. Furthermore, the advent of user-friendly computer codes and inexpensive computers has led to a revolution in the application of numerical methods for the design and control of a plethora of bulk-forming processes, thus leading...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003981
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... in subsequent forging in closed dies in either a press or hammer, thus eliminating a fullering or blocking operation. Crankshafts, control arms (see Fig. 1 ), connecting rods, and other automotive parts are typical products that are first roll forged from billets to preform stock, and then finish forged...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003978
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
...” in this article. Hammers and Presses Because the length of the hammer ram stroke and the magnitude of the force must be controllable over a wide range throughout the forging cycle, gravity-drop hammers and most mechanical presses are not suitable for open-die forging. Power forging hammers (air or steam...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003987
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... forging coining composite metals copper dimensional control hammers lubricants steels surface finish COINING is a closed-die forging operation, usually performed cold, in which all surfaces of the workpiece are confined or restrained, resulting in a well-defined imprint of the die...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 24A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 June 2023
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v24A.a0006953
EISBN: 978-1-62708-439-0
... volumetric NDT methods, the most powerful and accepted in terms of inspection capability of complex shapes and rough surface finish is x-ray computed tomography (XCT) ( Ref 8 – 13 ). It can provide enough spatial resolution to locate and even evaluate the dimensions of internal flaws in AM parts. It can also...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14b.a0005154
EISBN: 978-1-62708-186-3
... Hammering Hammering is perhaps the oldest form of sheet-metal forming. The modern method of incremental hammering utilizes computer-controlled robots without a support tool. The sheet-metal blank is attached to a supporting frame, and the forming tool is attached to an industrial robot. The robot...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 18
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v18.a0006359
EISBN: 978-1-62708-192-4
... from computer boards to oilshale, tool wear is a concern of economy. In the chattering of tubes carrying liquid wastes from nuclear reactors, safety and reliability are most important. In most of the above applications, impact occurs with a component of sliding, compounding the relative normal...
Book Chapter

By Robert Bolin
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003982
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... Example of two large contour rings Extreme Cross Sections Due to dramatic advances in ring rolling computer control, an increasing number of extreme washer and sleeve-type rings are being rolled. For washers, wall thickness-to-height ratios of 20 to 1 are common, and using specially prepared...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003994
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... forging minimizes the contact time between workpiece and die and can also maintain the forging temperature through adiabatic heating. Rotary forging machines using computer-controlled reduction schedules can maintain nearly isothermal conditions during a reduction pass along the length of the workpiece...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003980
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... sockets that require simultaneous upsetting and piercing. Forgings that require center upsets (not at bar end) or offset upsets can also be made. In many cases, hot upsetting is used as a means of preparing stock for subsequent forging on a hammer or in a press. Hot upsetting is also occasionally used...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14b.9781627081863
EISBN: 978-1-62708-186-3
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003993
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... of trial and error. Currently, the use of computer-aided design (CAD), manufacture, and engineering is particularly significant in the accurate modeling and control of temperature and deformation, which can dramatically affect the grain size and final mechanical properties of forged superalloys...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004000
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
..., such as hammers, mechanical/screw presses, and hydraulic presses. Spin Forging Spin forging can also be used in titanium alloy forging fabrication, as with aluminum and other materials. This technique combines closed-die forging and computer numerically controlled (CNC) spin forgers and achieves very close...
Book Chapter

By H.W. Sizek
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003984
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... the parameters involved in product shape control. It also provides examples that illustrate the versatility and capabilities of the radial forge machine. forging dies open-die forging product shape control radial forge machine radial forging RADIAL FORGING is forming with four dies arranged in one...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 20
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1997
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v20.a0002446
EISBN: 978-1-62708-194-8
... Abstract This article discusses tools that are used for the systematic optimization of engineering designs. It focuses on the practical application of optimization technology in a computer-aided engineering environment. The article presents numerical optimization algorithms and provides some...