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computer hardware

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Published: 01 January 1997
Fig. 1 Growth in computer hardware performance, 1970 to 1995. (a) Memory chip capacity doubles every 1.5 years. (b) Clock rate. (c) Peak single-process megaflops. Source: Ref 7 More
Image
Published: 01 December 2009
Fig. 1 Growth in computer hardware performance, 1970 to 1995. (a) Memory chip capacity doubles every 1.5 years. (b) Clock rate. (c) Peak single-process megaflops. Source: Ref 7 More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001470
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
... A neural network system (NNS) is a computer hardware and software technique that simulates an interconnected network of biological neurons, similar to a portion of the human brain. A neural network can be trained with given patterns, called training sets. After the NNS “learns” from the training set...
Book: Machining
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 16
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1989
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v16.a0002176
EISBN: 978-1-62708-188-7
... machining, and inspection. The article provides information on hardware, data base, interfaces, and benefits of integrating machining with the CAD/CAM system of a manufacturing plant. It also provides an overview of direct, computer and, distributed numerical control, which are devoid of a number...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22b.a0005538
EISBN: 978-1-62708-197-9
... conditions. The article describes the role of input data and boundary conditions for process simulations. It provides information on the critical enablers of computational materials engineering, such as the computational speed, computational materials engineering software/hardware supply chain, and cost...
Image
Published: 01 December 2009
Fig. 5 Engineering component design processes. Left side depicts a hardware-based approach; right side is an analysis-(computational fluid dynamics, or CFD-) based approach. CAD, computer-aided design More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003760
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
.... The article also discusses the techniques for reconstruction and visualization of 3D microstructures with advanced computer software and hardware. 3D images atom probe tomography computer hardware computer software data reconstruction data visualization direct-imaging methods focused ion beam...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001729
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
...-frequency generator and associated electronics; spectrometers, such as polychromators and monochromators; detection electronics and interface; and the system computer with appropriate hardware and software. The article also describes the uses of direct-current plasma, and provides examples...
Image
Published: 15 December 2019
and associated electronics, the spectrometer with the detection electronics, and the system computer with appropriate hardware and software. More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 20
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1997
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v20.a0002444
EISBN: 978-1-62708-194-8
... becoming available, and petaflop computers (peta = 1000 trillion) are being planned for the next decade ( Ref 10 ). Fig. 1 Growth in computer hardware performance, 1970 to 1995. (a) Memory chip capacity doubles every 1.5 years. (b) Clock rate. (c) Peak single-process megaflops. Source: Ref 7...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005426
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... teraflop (tera = trillion) are now available, and petaflop computers (peta = 1000 trillion) are being planned ( Ref 10 ). Fig. 1 Growth in computer hardware performance, 1970 to 1995. (a) Memory chip capacity doubles every 1.5 years. (b) Clock rate. (c) Peak single-process megaflops. Source: Ref 7...
Book Chapter

By Yoram Koren
Book: Machining
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 16
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1989
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v16.a0002174
EISBN: 978-1-62708-188-7
... Abstract This article discusses the evolution of computer numerical control and direct numerical control for machine tools. It describes the fundamentals and advantages of numerical control (NC) systems. The article reviews the manual or computer assisted off-line programming methods...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 20
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1997
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v20.a0002436
EISBN: 978-1-62708-194-8
... to an acceptable minimum. It has been demonstrated that hardware systems approaching a “failure-free” condition can be produced when actions are taken at all levels that are based on: Attention to past experiences with similar systems Availability of risk information for all project personnel A sound...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003519
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., modem speed, specification turnaround time, computer-chip speed, or acquisition frequency. These items usually are well defined and, in most cases, mutually agreed upon by the parties involved. Finally, specifications requirements, such as mechanical properties, plating thickness, weight, and coating...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005425
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... that is gaining momentum is the increasing interest of academic and research institutions in the development of fundamental material behavior and process models for the manufacture of metal products. This may be due to factors such as: Widespread availability of inexpensive computer hardware and software...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006439
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... Abstract Machine vision, also referred to as computer vision or intelligent vision, is a means of simulating the image recognition and analysis capabilities of the human eye and brain system with digital techniques. The machine vision functionality is extremely useful in inspection, supervision...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 20
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1997
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v20.a0002441
EISBN: 978-1-62708-194-8
... CAD would produce large savings throughout design and engineering. However, the reality was quite different: these savings did not materialize because the systems were unnatural and difficult to use, and affordable computing hardware did not provide enough computing power to efficiently create...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003250
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... and known compositions. All modern instruments are equipped with computers to facilitate this calibration and measurement process. The use of progressively more powerful computer hardware and software has substantially decreased the need for standards with compositions tailored to specific classes of alloys...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006456
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
..., Ltd., in England developed the first commercial XCT system, also known as a computerized assisted tomography scanner ( Ref 6 ). Commercial CT scanners also found increased acceptance with the availability of inexpensive computing power, and industrial testing was considered an appropriate application...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003638
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... corrosion resistance. However, when more information than corrosion rate is needed or accelerated testing is required, electrochemical techniques are often considered. Many electrochemical techniques are available, and their use has been made easier by the incorporation of computer software and hardware...