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Book: Machining
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 16
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1989
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v16.a0002176
EISBN: 978-1-62708-188-7
... verification, part machining, and inspection. The article provides information on hardware, data base, interfaces, and benefits of integrating machining with the CAD/CAM system of a manufacturing plant. It also provides an overview of direct, computer and, distributed numerical control, which are devoid...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22b.a0005538
EISBN: 978-1-62708-197-9
... boundary conditions. The article describes the role of input data and boundary conditions for process simulations. It provides information on the critical enablers of computational materials engineering, such as the computational speed, computational materials engineering software/hardware supply chain...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003760
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... the variants of the basic experimental techniques. The article also discusses the techniques for reconstruction and visualization of 3D microstructures with advanced computer software and hardware. References References 1. DeHoff R.T. , Quantitative Serial Sectioning Analysis: Preview , J...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001729
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
..., such as polychromators and monochromators; detection electronics and interface; and the system computer with appropriate hardware and software. The article also describes the uses of direct-current plasma, and provides examples of the applications of ICP-AES. References References 1. Greenfield S...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001470
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
... on and off or as complex as fully computer controlled linear mass flow metering for accurate gas mixing and flow control. The systems selected should reflect the type of welding that needs to be performed and the necessary control communication links. Control hardware, as described above, needs...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 20
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1997
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v20.a0002444
EISBN: 978-1-62708-194-8
... becoming available, and petaflop computers (peta = 1000 trillion) are being planned for the next decade ( Ref 10 ). Fig. 1 Growth in computer hardware performance, 1970 to 1995. (a) Memory chip capacity doubles every 1.5 years. (b) Clock rate. (c) Peak single-process megaflops. Source: Ref 7...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005426
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... of turbulent kinetic energy κ Heat conductivity λ Second coefficient of viscosity λ′ Bulk viscosity μ First coefficient of viscosity ρ Mass density Σ Stress Fig. 1 Growth in computer hardware performance, 1970 to 1995. (a) Memory chip capacity doubles every 1.5 years. (b...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005425
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... that is gaining momentum is the increasing interest of academic and research institutions in the development of fundamental material behavior and process models for the manufacture of metal products. This may be due to factors such as: Widespread availability of inexpensive computer hardware and software...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02.a0001077
EISBN: 978-1-62708-162-7
..., and clocks. Zinc castings are frequently and increasingly being specified for hardware used in the computer industry, in business machines (photocopiers, facsimile machines, cash registers, and typewriters), and in such items as recording machines, projectors, vending machines, cameras, gasoline pumps, many...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14b.a0005151
EISBN: 978-1-62708-186-3
.... The rapid developments of software technology, together with faster and lower-cost computer hardware, have enabled many metal-forming operations to be modeled cost-effectively. Simulation lead time has been decreasing significantly since 1990. Figure 4 shows that the simulation lead time for total...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006439
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... issues that must be addressed by vision system developers. Many organizations are attempting to resolve these issues through such developments as improved computer hardware or improved software algorithms, but much work remains to be done to develop effective vision systems that are available...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003250
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... to facilitate this calibration and measurement process. The use of progressively more powerful computer hardware and software has substantially decreased the need for standards with compositions tailored to specific classes of alloys. Many current analyses are done based only on pure element standards, using...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003250
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... of progressively more powerful computer hardware and software has substantially decreased the need for standards with compositions tailored to specific classes of alloys. Many current analyses are done based only on pure element standards, using the computer to make composition-dependent corrections by iterative...
Book Chapter

By Yoram Koren
Book: Machining
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 16
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1989
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v16.a0002174
EISBN: 978-1-62708-188-7
... Fig. 5 Block diagram of a point-to-point system Abstract Abstract This article discusses the evolution of computer numerical control and direct numerical control for machine tools. It describes the fundamentals and advantages of numerical control (NC) systems. The article reviews the manual...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 20
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1997
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v20.a0002436
EISBN: 978-1-62708-194-8
... to an acceptable minimum. It has been demonstrated that hardware systems approaching a “failure-free” condition can be produced when actions are taken at all levels that are based on: Attention to past experiences with similar systems Availability of risk information for all project personnel A sound...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003519
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... equipment, maybe people, anything and everything. Be careful about color. Known color chart, white piece of paper, etc. Kodak grey or color chart, Ace Hardware paint charts, red button, your tie. Anything you can use later as a standard to judge the color of your pictures. Ruler—steel and plastic 1...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 20
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1997
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v20.a0002441
EISBN: 978-1-62708-194-8
... not materialize because the systems were unnatural and difficult to use, and affordable computing hardware did not provide enough computing power to efficiently create and manipulate the models. Early solids-based systems relied on Boolean combinations of simple primitive solids (blocks, cylinders, spheres...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06a.a0005616
EISBN: 978-1-62708-174-0
... ( Ref 16 , Ref 17 , Ref 18 , 19 ). Carr et al. have used the high-temperature superconducting SQUID system to characterize the inertia welds of stainless steel ( Ref 20 ). Recent advances in computer hardware and software have made possible computer modeling and simulation to be employed...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006477
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... interference device system to characterize the inertia welds of stainless steel ( Ref 20 ). Recent advances in computer hardware and software have made possible computer modeling and simulation to be employed for optimization and prediction of eddy-current technique performance ( Ref 21 ). The computer...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006443
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
.... System/Process Performance Characteristics Although care, discipline, and control measures are applied to ensure a consistent output from an NDE system or process, the output will vary within the established control parameters and as a result of slight variations in engineering hardware materials...