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Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003019
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... molding heat transfer analysis techniques to maximize the heat transfer characteristics of the tool ( Ref 4 ). Extra sets of tooling are expensive and introduce variance in part tolerance when a number of parts must be assembled from moldings of several tools. It is therefore advantageous from several...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0009009
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... accurately measure the temperature of the specimen, a thermocouple should be welded to the surface of the specimen or inserted in a small hole drilled into the specimen ( Ref 3 ). In setting up the tests, it is important to establish the soak time needed for the specimen to come to equilibrium with the test...
Book Chapter

Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005354
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... handling sand-resin mixtures for no-bake molds or cones and lists some advantages of no-bake air-set cores and molds. The article describes the process procedures, advantages, and disadvantages of gas curing and air-setting hardening of sodium silicates. It discusses the members of the air-setting organic...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003199
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... Abstract Control of temperature and furnace atmospheres has become increasingly critical to successful heat treating. Temperature instrumentation and control systems used in heat treating include temperature sensors, controllers, final control elements, measurement instruments, and set-point...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006472
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... Abstract Time-of-flight diffraction (TOFD) is an ultrasonic technique used to detect diffracted waves from crack tips and to size the cracks from the arrival times of those waves. This article discusses the basic considerations and provides information on probe selection, gain setting, and...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006468
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... establishing a set of procedures for the magnetic-particle inspection of a specific part: type of current, type of magnetic particles, method of magnetization, direction of magnetization, magnitude of applied current, and equipment. It concludes with a discussion on demagnetization after magnetic-particle...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004029
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... Abstract The processing of steel involves five distinct sets of texture development mechanisms, namely, austenite deformation, austenite recrystallization, gamma-to-alpha transformation, ferrite deformation, and static recrystallization during annealing after cold rolling. This article provides...
Book Chapter

Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005244
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
..., and additives used in coremaking. It discusses the curing of compacted cores by core baking and the hot box processes. The article provides an overview of core coatings, assembling and core setting, coring of tortuous passages, and cores in permanent mold castings and investment castings. It also...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006277
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
... Gibbs free energies and atomic mobilities are established as functions of temperature, pressure, and composition and serve directly as key inputs of any microstructure modeling. The article presents examples of the integrated computation tool set in simulating microstructural evolution. Burgers...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004017
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... proportional to the crosshead velocity. In a modern testing machine, in which the crosshead velocity can be set accurately and controlled, it is a simple matter to carry out tension tests at a constant engineering strain rate. The true strain rate ε ˙ is given by: (Eq 25) ε ˙ = d ε d...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003035
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... determined by the height adjustment of the paste doctor blades. The speed of the machine and viscosity of the resin formulation have been found to have little or no effect on the paste distribution. Figure 5 , which shows the relationship of paste weight to paste doctor blade settings, is representative of...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006649
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... set of sieves with different opening sizes, called mesh size ( Table 1 ), on the screen to generate narrowly classified fractions of the powder ( Fig. 6 ). Sieving can be run in dry (air) or wet (water) manually or by machine. For 45 μm or coarser powder, sieving in dry is sufficient, while when...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006791
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... surface, and the coefficient of friction can rise to approximately 0.1 ( Ref 29 ). However, if there is a substantial increase in load, speed, or lubricant temperature, then severe scoring will set in, with large material-transfer regions spreading quickly throughout the contact. Sometimes scoring is...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003178
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... processes for bars and structural shapes ( Fig. 14 c-h). For close tolerances, rotary and roll straightening may be followed by press straightening. In one roll-straightening system, square, flat, hexagonal, and other flat-sided bars are passed continuously between sets of parallel-axis rolls ( Fig. 15...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003241
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... specification. In the United States, the diamond was first set at 192 μm to match the nominal values of the hardness test blocks. However, the rest of the world has used a diamond size closer to 200 μm (0.0079 in.). A comparison of the old (192 μm) U.S. standard diamond indenter and the current (200 μm tip...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003044
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... International, 1992, p 183–200 Development of stress-strain relationships for an orthotropic material requires the definition of engineering constants. A unidirectional material is orthotropic with respect to some set of orthonormal axes, x 1 - x 2 axes. The stress-strain relationships for plane stress...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0000610
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... 304L. Fig. 640 : General view of fracture surface of sample tested at −75 °C (−105 °F). Note that facets are interconnected, are planar and flat, frequently exhibit steps 0.5 to 6.5 μm high, always have one to three sets of slip traces, and (unlike cleavage fractures) never show river patterns...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003009
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... Abstract Advanced thermoplastics are stiff, moldable plastics that compete with traditional engineering thermoplastics and thermosets owing to their good tensile, compressive, impact, and shear strength, electrical properties, and corrosion resistance. This article discusses commercial forms...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003108
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
..., descriptions, and uses, see Table 2 . (a) Measured at a predetermined location on the casting. (b) Determined using a standard specimen taken from a separately cast test block, as set forth in the applicable specification. (c) Range specified by mutual agreement between producer and purchaser...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006761
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... indentation. In the Rockwell tests, the depth of indentation at a prescribed load is determined and converted to a unitless hardness number. Hardness, although apparently simple in concept, is a property that represents an effect of complex elastic and plastic stress fields set up in the material being...