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composite-toughening methods

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0009080
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... electron microscopy. Particle Interlayer Toughening of Composite Materials A more recent method of toughening fiber-reinforced composites modifies only the highly stressed interlayer of the composite ( Ref 10 , 14 , 15 , 16 ). This engineering approach to toughening composites has been shown...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0009071
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... transfer molding, vacuum-assisted resin transfer molding, and resin film infusion. It explains the composite- and matrix-toughening methods for fiber-reinforced composites, such as dispersed-phase toughening and interlayer toughening. The article concludes with information on optical microscopy, which...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0009081
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... interlayer-toughened composite failure mechanisms. aircraft industry brittle-matrix composite failures composite design composites c-scan methods dispersed-phase thermoset-matrix composite failures impact parameters impact response impact-damaged composites material characteristics optical...
Image
Published: 01 December 2004
Fig. 5 Preformed-particle-modified interlayer regions of various carbon fiber composite materials showing differences in the optical analysis technique and the sample-preparation method. (a) Reflected-light optical analysis of an interlayer region showing particles residing in the interlayer More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003449
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... the mechanisms of toughening are much the same, glass-matrix composites are not discussed here as a separate type of CMC, but are included in the general discussion of DR-CMCs and CFCCs. Discontinuously Reinforced Ceramic-Matrix Composites Discontinuously reinforced ceramic-matrix composites are a class...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0009094
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
.... Included in these articles are the methods and reagents that are used to bring out distinct features in composite materials, such as different phases and areas of degradation or damage. Also included are details of how to prepare special composite materials having vast differences in hardness and material...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 19
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1996
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v19.a0002418
EISBN: 978-1-62708-193-1
... networks, and a ductile matrix with a dispersed elastic phase. The first two represent most metal-toughened ceramics and intermetallics. The latter includes most metal-matrix composites and rubber-toughened polymers. An important difference between the first two microstructures and the third concerns...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003469
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
...-matrix composite. Source: Ref 4 Fig. 4 Flat, nearly featureless fracture surface indicative of linear-elastic, very low energy absorbing stress-strain behavior (poor toughening behavior of CMCs); alumina (PRD-166) fiber reinforced glass-matrix composite. Source: Ref 5 Evidence...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003063
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... Abstract Ceramic-matrix composites (CMCs) are being developed for a number of high-temperature and high-performance applications in industrial, aerospace, and energy conservation sectors. This article focuses on processing, fabrication, testing, and characterization methods of CMCs, namely...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003486
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... on discontinuously reinforced CMCs, including their toughening mechanisms and properties, can be found in the article “Properties and Performance of Ceramic-Matrix and Carbon-Carbon Composites” in this Volume. Cutting Tools Both particulate-reinforced and whisker-reinforced Al 2 O 3 have found use...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02.a0001107
EISBN: 978-1-62708-162-7
... degradation at temperatures between 200 to 300 °C (400 to 570 °F). Composite Ceramics The early success of ZTA and partially-stabilized zirconia systems provided the impetus to include toughened ceramics as a candidate for structural applications. However, due to the limited maximum-temperature use...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0009075
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... Abstract The analysis of composite materials using optical microscopy is a process that can be made easy and efficient with only a few contrast methods and preparation techniques. This article is intended to provide information that will help an investigator select the appropriate microscopy...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003489
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
...-filled adhesive if there is concern for possible galvanic corrosion in the joint. In thin composite structures where bending or flexing is a concern, a toughened adhesive may be warranted. In addition to composite bonding and repair applications, two-part epoxy paste adhesives are also used...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0009082
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
..., “Toughening Methods for Thermoset-Matrix Composites,” the use of various toughening materials in thermosetting matrices may alter the matrix microstructure and can be influenced by the cure cycle. Another factor that is sometimes disregarded is the fiber influence on the matrix microstructure in composite...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003367
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... mechanisms used for epoxy resins, with the expected change in the balance of modulus, T g , and strain to failure. The ability to modify and toughen CE-based resins makes them appropriate for adhesives and toughened composite applications. One prepolymer system available from Vantico, XU71787 0.07l...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 8
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v08.a0003311
EISBN: 978-1-62708-176-4
... specimen type. linear-elastic fracture mechanics elastic-plastic fracture mechanics fracture mechanics ceramics single edge notch bending testing compact tension testing double cantilever beam testing chevron notch methods double torsion method fracture toughness ceramic matrix composites...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003039
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... costs of filament winding for a graphite-epoxy composite compared with other fabrication methods The advantages and disadvantages of filament winding, compared with other compacting and curing processes, are: Advantages: Advantages: The highly repetitive nature of fiber placement (from...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003362
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... applications where rapid cure is required and the sulfur odor of the curative doesn't prohibit use. Common applications are industrial road marker adhesives and commercial patch kits ( Ref 24 ). Fig. 13 Epoxy-thiol reaction Alternate Cure Methods One of the newer trends in the composites...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0009079
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... of these materials play a significant role in the microcracking behavior of the cured composite, along with the formed interphase during cure ( Ref 3 ). Composite matrices are often toughened, which can increase the stress level that is necessary to initiate microcracking. The location of the toughness modifiers...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 8
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v08.a0003319
EISBN: 978-1-62708-176-4
.... The larger stress-intensity factor is a result of the crack-length dependence of the toughening mechanism that is active in toughened ceramics. Strength-Based Test Methods Strength-based methods or “indirect” methods employ smooth test specimens, such as flexural beams or tensile specimens...