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composite-toughening methods

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0009080
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
..., such as transmission electron microscopy. A more recent method of toughening fiber-reinforced composites modifies only the highly stressed interlayer of the composite ( Ref 10 , 14 , 15 , 16 ). This engineering approach to toughening composites has been shown to reduce the propensity for delamination, which...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0009071
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... transfer molding, vacuum-assisted resin transfer molding, and resin film infusion. It explains the composite- and matrix-toughening methods for fiber-reinforced composites, such as dispersed-phase toughening and interlayer toughening. The article concludes with information on optical microscopy, which...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0009081
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... interlayer-toughened composite failure mechanisms. aircraft industry brittle-matrix composite failures composite design composites c-scan methods dispersed-phase thermoset-matrix composite failures impact parameters impact response impact-damaged composites material characteristics optical...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003449
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... conductivity measured at 800 °C (1470 °F). Fig. 1 Toughening mechanisms that can be activated in a discontinuously reinforced ceramic-matrix composite. Source: Ref 7 Fig. 2 Mechanisms of fiber debonding, crack bridging, and fiber pullout as a result of crack propagation within...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003063
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
...Abstract Abstract Ceramic-matrix composites (CMCs) are being developed for a number of high-temperature and high-performance applications in industrial, aerospace, and energy conservation sectors. This article focuses on processing, fabrication, testing, and characterization methods of CMCs...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003486
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... Al<sub>2</sub>O<sub>3</sub>-TiC Composites Silicon Carbide Whisker-Reinforced Alumina Si<sub>3</sub>N<sub>4</sub>-Base Composites Zirconia-Toughened Ceramics SiC Particle-Reinforced Al<sub>2</sub>O<sub>3</sub> Matrix Composites CMCs for Can-Making Tooling Although most CMCs under development for aerospace...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 19
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1996
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v19.a0002418
EISBN: 978-1-62708-193-1
... that can be gained by activating the toughening mechanisms. Establishing these characteristics is an important priority for future modeling. Ductilizing has a much greater influence on reliability than increasing the toughness. A future endeavor would address new methods for improving ductility...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003367
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... (a) DMA, dynamic mechanical analysis; TGA, thermogravimetric analysis Composite properties of 180 °C (360 °F) cyanate ester prepreg systems Table 3 Composite properties of 180 °C (360 °F) cyanate ester prepreg systems Property ASTM test method Unidirectional prepregs Other fabric...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02.a0001107
EISBN: 978-1-62708-162-7
... direction that shows promise is that of composite materials. For example, silicon carbide whiskers have been incorporated into an aluminum oxide matrix, resulting in a composite with greatly improved toughness. The toughening mechanism is probably a combination of whisker pullout and crack bridging, whereby...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003362
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... of Epoxy/Carbon Fiber Composite Systems , J. Adv. Mater. Vol 28 ( No. 4 ), 1997 , p 20 – 25 34. Stängle M. , Altstädt V. , Tesch H. , and Weber T. , Thermoplastic Toughening of 180 °C Curable Epoxy Matrix Composites–a Fundamental Study , Advanced Materials: Cost...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003469
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... fracture surface indicative of nonlinear, energy-absorbing stress-strain behavior (good toughening behavior of CMCs); 0°/90° laminate Nicalon fiber reinforced calcium aluminosilicate (CAS) glass-matrix composite. Source: Ref 4 Fig. 4 Flat, nearly featureless fracture surface indicative...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003489
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... modulus in order to improve fracture toughness and fatigue life. However, in well-designed, toughened adhesives (e.g., second-phase toughening), only moderate reductions of the continuous-phase modulus occurs. ADHESIVE BONDING frequently is used to assemble composite components into larger structures...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0009075
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... Abstract The analysis of composite materials using optical microscopy is a process that can be made easy and efficient with only a few contrast methods and preparation techniques. This article is intended to provide information that will help an investigator select the appropriate microscopy...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 19
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1996
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v19.a0002417
EISBN: 978-1-62708-193-1
... on ceramics. It provides a discussion on room-temperature fatigue crack growth in monolithic ceramics, transformation-toughened ceramics, and ceramic composites under cyclic compression. The cyclic damage zones ahead of tensile fatigue cracks, crack propagation under cyclic tension or tension-compression...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003039
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
.... Filament-wound aircraft structures, attractive because of the potential for large cost savings, must exhibit damage tolerance. Toughness can be incorporated into a composite structure by any of several methods: Currently, all toughened wet filament winding resin systems depend on the addition...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 8
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v08.a0003319
EISBN: 978-1-62708-176-4
... Abstract This article describes the fatigue mechanism and behavior of environmentally induced fatigue and cyclic fatigue. It discusses three basic strength test methods, namely, static, dynamic, and cyclic, along with their analytical relations for determining the fatigue parameters...
Book: Machining
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 16
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1989
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v16.a0002126
EISBN: 978-1-62708-188-7
... , 1980 , p 875 10.1007/BF00552097 10. Baldoni J.G. et al. , Particulate Titanium-Carbide Ceramic Matrix Composites , Institute of Physics Conference Series No. 75, Adam Holger , 1986 , p 427 11. Lange F.F. , Transformation Toughening , J. Mater. Sci. , Vol 17 , 1982...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0009094
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
.... Included in these articles are the methods and reagents that are used to bring out distinct features in composite materials, such as different phases and areas of degradation or damage. Also included are details of how to prepare special composite materials having vast differences in hardness and material...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005675
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
... inert crystalline ceramics, porous ceramics, calcium phosphate ceramics, and bioactive glasses. The article discusses the compositions of ceramics and carbon-base implant materials, and examines their differences in processing and structure. It describes the chemical and microstructural basis...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0009079
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... of these materials play a significant role in the microcracking behavior of the cured composite, along with the formed interphase during cure ( Ref 3 ). Composite matrices are often toughened, which can increase the stress level that is necessary to initiate microcracking. The location of the toughness modifiers...