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complexity theory

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005429
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... between these two approaches by constructing novel potentials that blend fundamental aspects of the two theories ( Ref 6 ). The resulting approximations show great promise for calculations over a broad range of problems ranging from atoms and molecules to chemically complex metal-oxide interfaces. For...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0009004
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
.... bulk forming process mechanical plasticity strain state stress state theoretical fracture criteria theoretical fracture models workability theory WORKABILITY, as described in previous articles, is not merely a property of a material but a characteristic of the material/process system. The...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005435
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... Abstract This article assesses the evolution of martensite modeling in the changing materials engineering environment. It describes the physics of displacive transformations using Ginzburg-Landau theory, microstructure representation, dynamics and simulations, density functional theory, and...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006667
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... Abstract This article provides a brief introduction to neutron diffraction as well as its state-of-the-art capabilities. The discussion covers the general principles of the neutron, neutron-scattering theory, generation of neutrons, types of incident radiation, and purposes of single-crystal...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006647
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... Abstract This article provides a clear but nonexhaustive description of the general principle of atomic emission, with a particular focus on instrumentation, and summarizes the main characteristics of the inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer technique. Basic atomic theory as...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005428
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... the Potts model is that is a simple way to model complex systems by modeling local physics, in particular, the effect of surface tension phenomena on the development and evolution of microstructure. At all times, it has been important to compare the model with theory and experimental data; this...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006643
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... Abstract This article describes the methods of X-ray diffraction analysis, the types of information that can be obtained, and its interpretation. The discussion covers the basic theories of X-rays and various types of diffraction experiments, namely single-crystal methods for polychromatic and...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006792
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
.... Therefore, despite the increasing use of overlay coatings in bearing applications, theories on their life prediction are limited. Rosado et al. ( Ref 153 ) studied the effects of surface roughness, lubrication regime, and so forth on coating life. Given the complex tribological interactions between the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003841
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... Abstract This article provides an overview of the corrosion theory relating to refractories on the basis of acid/base reactions, thermodynamics, and kinetic considerations. The tests to evaluate refractory corrosive wear are reviewed. The article describes the specific refractories used in...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006768
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... summarizes the theory of XRD analysis and describes advances in equipment capability. measurement depth selection measurement location selection measurement validation residual-stress analysis sample selection specimen preparation X-ray diffraction X-RAY DIFFRACTION (XRD) residual-stress...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005924
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
..., including cooling systems, power supplies, heat stations, work handling fixtures, induction or work coils, and quench systems. The article discusses the influence of system elements on induction heat treating system design. It also deals with the general theory, types, and applications of induction coils...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006773
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
.../boundary conditions be satisfied. Classical theory of elasticity ( Ref 1 – 3 ) involves developing complex differential equations to satisfy these requirements, but such an approach is practical only for situations where closed-form solutions are available. Simplifying many engineering structures to more...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0001838
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... Abstract This article discusses the fractal characteristics of fracture surfaces as a means for describing and quantifying irregular, complex curves and surfaces of fractured materials. It describes the important relationship between the profile and surface roughness parameters that yield the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006784
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
.... Hydrogen damage is a complex phenomenon that takes on several forms, and many mechanisms have been proposed, which include ( Ref 1 ): Hydrogen pressure theory Reduced surface energy (surface adsorption) theory Decohesion theory Enhanced plastic flow theory Decarburization (hydrogen attack...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005426
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... generation with complex geometries. It discusses the four-step procedures used in the CFD process for engineering design: geometry acquisition, grid generation and problem specification, flow solution, and post-processing and synthesis. The article also provides information on the engineering applications of...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006772
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... materials failure analysts. This article focuses on the general methods and approaches from the perspective of a reconstruction analyst. It describes the elements of accident reconstruction, which have conceptual similarity with the principles for failure analysis of material incidents that are less complex...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005683
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
... acceptance criteria for the individual parameters. While some may be estimated based on the corrosion theory and principles, the complexity of the in vivo exposure, combined with the limitations and possible errors of the laboratory test results, makes this a difficult and unfinished task, which may be...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005427
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... Abstract Integrated computational materials engineering refers to the use of computer simulations that integrate mathematical models of complex metallurgical processes with computer models used in component and process design. This article outlines an example of a computer-aided engineering...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005947
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... Abstract Dimensional and shape changes caused by heat treatment have been the subject of scientific and industrial research for a very long time. This article provides an overview of the complexity of distortion and stress generation during heat treatment of steels. It discusses the measurement...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003060
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... Abstract The design process for ceramic materials is more complex than that of metals because of low-strain tolerance, low fracture toughness and brittleness. The application of structural ceramics to engineering systems hinges on the functional benefits to be derived and is manifested in the...