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compacted iron

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Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003109
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... graphite in CG iron. Full deep etch. 395× Abstract This article discusses the graphite morphology, chemical composition, mechanical and physical properties, and applications of compacted graphite (CG) irons. It compares the selected properties of gray, ductile and CG irons, and lists their...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005325
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... Abstract This article reviews the graphite morphology, chemical composition requirements, castability, mechanical properties, and corrosion resistance of compacted graphite (CG) irons. It describes the factors affecting the mechanical properties of CG irons. The article also presents the...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003106
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
..., compacted graphite, and white cast iron. A table shows the correspondence between commercial and microstructural classification, as well as final processing stage in obtaining common cast irons. carbon equivalence classification of cast irons compacted graphite iron ductile cast iron gray cast...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005294
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... irons. Foundry practices are also described for compacted graphite, high-silicon ductile, and high-alloy white irons. alloying compacted graphite iron desulfurization high-alloy white iron high-nickel ductile iron high-silicon ductile iron high-silicon gray iron malleable iron sand molds...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003174
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... Abstract Cast iron, which usually refers to an in situ composite of stable eutectic graphite in a steel matrix, includes the major classifications of gray iron, ductile iron, compacted graphite iron, malleable iron, and white iron. This article discusses melting, pouring, desulfurization...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003112
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... process, Pyron process, atomization of liquid metal, thermal decomposition and the electrodeposition process for carbonyl and electrolytic iron powders. It describes the types of compaction and sintering, explaining their effects of processing with designations. Further, the article deals with the...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005213
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... of Fe-C-Si alloys. SG, spheroidal graphite; CG, compacted graphite; FG, flake graphite. Source: Ref 26 Fig. 14 λ- R relationships in flake graphite cast iron. A, Lakeland λ = 3.8 × 10 −5 · R −0.5 cm; B, Nieswaag and Zuithoff λ = 0.56 × 10 −5 · R −0.78 cm (0.004% S); C, Nieswaag...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003246
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... steels are deliberately designed to produce a small amount of graphite in the structure to enhance machinability ( Fig. 4 ). The graphite in cast irons is produced in a variety of forms, such as flake, compacted, and spheroidal. Gray cast iron containing flake graphite is quite brittle; however, if the...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003108
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... fracture toughness. These values were determined using compact tension specimens 21 mm (0.83 in.) in width. All tests were completed in accordance with ASTM E 399. Table 6 gives data for ductile iron with a nodule shape approximately corresponding to 50% ASTM type I. Figure 6 shows fatigue-strength...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005326
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... Abstract Malleable iron is a cast ferrous metal that is initially produced as white cast iron and is then heat treated to convert the carbon-containing phase from iron carbide to a nodular form of graphite called temper carbon. This article provides a discussion on the melting practices, heat...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005324
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... Pechiney Electrometalluie ( Ref 51 ), and from the existing article (Vol 15) by I.C.H. Hughes, BCIRA. Ductile iron is characterized by having all of its graphite occur in microscopic spheroids. Although this graphite constitutes approximately 10% by volume in ductile iron, its compact spherical shape...
Book Chapter

Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005323
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... Abstract This article begins with an overview of classes and applications of gray iron. It discusses the castability of gray iron in terms of section sensitivity and fluidity. The article provides information on the dimensions of prevailing sections recommended for gray irons and reviews the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006445
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... resistivity tests could be used as a rapid check for localized density variations. As with ultrasound, the elastic modulus and the toughness of porous steels can also be distinguished by resistivity checks ( Ref 9 ). Fig. 7 Variation in resistivity with relative density in sintered iron. Source: Ref 8...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003201
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... graphite in ductile iron is in compact spheres and has less effect on hardness and other properties. Gray iron commonly is subjected to one of three annealing treatments, each of which involves heating to a different range of temperature. These treatments are ferritizing annealing, medium (or “full...
Book Chapter

By Erhard Klar
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003185
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... manufacture of parts possessing higher mechanical properties, or a more compressible powder permits the use of a smaller and less expensive compaction press. Figure 3 shows typical compressibility curves for aluminum, copper, and iron powders. Maximizing compressibility is of particular importance for...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003810
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... Spherical graphite nodules Compacted graphite cast iron Short, fat, interconnected flakes (intermediate between ductile and gray cast iron) The structure of the metal matrix around the carbon-rich constituent establishes the class of iron within each type of iron. As in steel, the five basic...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001231
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
...–600) 230–425 (75–1400) … Medium-carbon alloy steel 0.4–2.5 0.015–0.1 0.08–0.2 0.003–0.008 150–275 (560–900) 60–120 (200–400) 55–130 (175–450) 325–750 (325–750) 230–410 (750–1350) … Hardened irons (400–525 HB) 0.08–1.5 0.003–0.6 0.08–0.3 0.003–0.012 … … … … 60–185 (200–600...
Book Chapter

Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005244
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... quantities. Fig. 3 Cores and corresponding castings produced by the cold box process. (a) Large transmission case and resulting gray iron casting for an agricultural equipment manufacturer. (b) Disk brake rotor and turbine cores and castings. Courtesy of Ashland Chemical Company Both cold- and...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005322
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... strength in the microstructure. However, the ast iron alloys are not as easily forged, mechanically worked, or as weldable as steels. There are five generic types of cast irons based on the form of the excess carbon present: white, malleable, gray, ductile, and compacted graphite. Unlike steel, the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0000603
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... ductile iron compact tension specimen. Note how crack ignores nodules in fatigue and grows almost exclusively through nodule-nucleated voids during ductile fracture. ∼80× (W.L. Bradley, Texas A&M University) Ductile fracture in ferritic ductile iron. Fig. 94 : SEM, 160×. Fig. 95 : Example of...