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color metallography

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003752
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... in Micrography , Met. Prog. , Vol 36 , Dec 1939 , p 761 2. Loveland R.P. , Metallography in Color , ASTM Bull. , May 1944 , p 19 3. Forgeng W.D. , Color Metallography , Iron Age , Vol 162 ( No. 16 ), 14 Oct 1948 , p 130 4. Symposium on Metallography in Color...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 August 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01a.a0006342
EISBN: 978-1-62708-179-5
... the general preparation of metallographic specimens and the methods of macroscopic and microscopic examination. Usually, gray-scale (black-and-white) metallography is sufficient for microstructural analysis of cast irons. The article discusses the use of color metallography of gray irons and ductile irons...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 August 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01a.a0006351
EISBN: 978-1-62708-179-5
... that was not seen in the as-polished condition, but color etching with strong aqueous 10% sodium metabisulfite can reveal the dendritic segregation in the austenitic matrix (see the article “Metallography and Microstructures of Cast Iron” in this Volume). Fig. 3 Flake graphite in ASTM A436 type 2 Ni...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 August 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01a.a0006350
EISBN: 978-1-62708-179-5
... “Metallography and Microstructures of Cast Iron” in this Volume. Fig. 20 Pearlitic gray iron heat treated to form martensite with some retained austenite (white). Etched with 2% nital Fig. 21 Heat treated ductile cast iron etched with Beraha’s CdS film reagent (for color tint, not shown...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006684
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... Microscopical Society Through 150 Years , Adam Hilger , 1989 17. Symposium on Metallography in Color, ASTM, STP 86, Philadelphia , 1949 18. Beraha E. and Sphigler B. , Color Metallography , American Society for Metals , 1977 19. Wolf I.M. and Cortie M.B...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 August 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01a.a0006343
EISBN: 978-1-62708-179-5
..., beginning with the very name of gray iron as an indication of the surface color when a specimen of graphitized iron is fractured. Further advances in the characterization followed from the work of Henry Clifton Sorby ( Ref 1 ) as the father of metallography. Sorby developed the method of polishing...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003749
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... to their crystal orientation. They become distinct by the different reflectivity caused by reaction layers or surface roughness. Heat tinting Formation of interference colors in air or other gases, usually at elevated temperature Hot etching Development and stabilization of the microstructure at elevated...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 7
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v07.a0006116
EISBN: 978-1-62708-175-7
... and Microstructures of Carbon and Low-Alloy Steels , ASM Handbook, Vol 9, Metallography and Microstructures , ASM International , 2004 , p 608 – 626 6. Petzow G. , Metallographic Etching , ASM International , 1999 , p 94 – 102 7. Beraha E. and Shpigler B. , Color Metallography...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001312
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... prepared surfaces for light microscope observation. See P.E. Danielson's articles on color metallography and the metallography of zirconium, hafnium, and titanium in Volume 9 of the ASM Handbook. Caution should be exercised during the anodizing process, especially when the high voltage is reached...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001754
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
... treatments (see the articles “Color Metallography” and “Chemical and Electrolytic Polishing” in Volume 9 of ASM Handbook ). Chemical and electrochemical attack are the most frequently used. The details of the structure revealed by etching depend on the type of etchant used ( Fig. 4 ). Fig. 4...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003754
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
.... , Applications of Color in Metallography and Photography , Interpretative Techniques for Microstructural Analysis , McCall J.L. and French P.M. , Ed., Plenum Press , 1977 p 43 – 64 52. Exner H.E. et al. , Some Experiences in the Documentation of Colour Micrographs , Pract...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003763
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... E. and Shpigler B. , Color Metallography , American Society for Metals , 1977 Microstructural Constituents Metallographic Procedures Preparing Specimens for Macrostructural Examination Preparing Specimens for Microstructural Examination Examination of As-Polished...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003767
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... colored, austenite not attacked. Can be stored  3. 5 g CuCl 2 , 100 mL HCl, 100 mL ethanol Kalling's No. 2 reagent. Use at room temperature. Ferrite attacked rapidly, austenite slightly attacked, carbides not attacked. Can be stored  4. 5 g CuCl 2 , 40 mL HCl, 30 mL H 2 O, 25 mL ethanol Fry's...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006763
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
...; a typical example is shown in Fig. 32 . An optical metallographic image of the fractured exemplar crankshaft microstructure away from the fracture is shown in Fig. 33 . Optical metallography has historically used monochromatic lighting and black-and-white photography. However, color photography...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003527
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
...) . The photographic techniques employed in optical metallography include digital photography, film photography, and instant film photography. Optical metallography has historically used monochromatic lighting and black-and-white photography. However, color photography is advantageous for showing heating effects...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003774
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... the surface will oxidize rapidly, leading to a decrease in the color contrast between the grains. Therefore, imaging and analysis should be performed as soon as possible after etching. Additional information on color etching of magnesium and magnesium alloys can be found in the article “Color Metallography...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003782
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... that cracked during bending. Metallography is also an excellent method to determine the presence of light element contamination in a reactive metal weld structure since anodization at ∼108 V shows the presence of nitrogen as a bluish-green and oxygen as a reddish coloration. This is shown in heat-related...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003737
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... 625 13.  (a) 33 mL HCl and 67 mL H 2 O Beraha's tint etch for nickel-base alloys; add 0.6–1 g K 2 S 2 O 5 (potassium metabisulfite) to 100 mL stock solution a; immerse (never swab) 60–150 s, slowly agitate; if colors are not developed, add 1–1.5 g FeCl 3 or 2–10 g NH 4 F-HF (ammonium bifluoride...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003769
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... in commercial aluminum alloys Morphology Phase Color of precipitates under light microscope Identification Birefringes Other methods (a) Needles β-AlFeSi Gray Moderate, light to dark gray Selective etching, EDS Al 7 Cu 2 Fe Light gray, outlined Moderate, light to dark gray Selective...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001755
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
...) etching ( Ref 9 , 21 ) is extremely useful because of its high selectivity and near absence of etch relief (see the article “Color Metallography” in Volume 9 of ASM Handbook ). Electrolytic etching techniques are also valuable. The optimum procedure darkens either the phase of interest or all other...