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color metallography

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006684
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... preparation are not covered in this article as they are covered in great depth for all commercially used alloy systems, together with the use of the light microscope, interpretation of microstructure, and color metallography ( Ref 1 – 18 ). This article concentrates on how to reveal microstructure properly to...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006760
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... coloration of adjacent beach marks is typically due to changes in loading or environmental factors. In the SEM at sufficiently high magnification, fatigue striations can be detected in many materials but not all ( Fig. 8 ). In hardened steel or high-strength steels—very common materials—striations may often...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006682
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... but not as competent at recognizing features of interest. To enhance feature detection, it is necessary to use etchants that are selective as to which constituent or phase they color or darken and which they do not. In general, the commonly used etchants for qualitative evaluation of the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006678
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
..., fluorine, oxygen, nitrogen, carbon, and boron, can be measured with useful accuracy as major constituents in fluorides, oxides, nitrides, carbides, and borides. Quantitative compositional mapping can be performed on x-ray spectrum image databases, resulting in elemental images in which the gray or color...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003004
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... Abstract This article is a comprehensive collection of engineering property data in tabulated form for ceramics and glasses. Data are provided for physical and mechanical properties of ceramic materials and color of ceramics fired under oxidizing and reducing conditions. The article also lists...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003969
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
..., conditions, and specific circumstances that together can reduce the anticipated service life of a component or plant. The color images in this article are categorized according to the type of corrosion following the general order that is adopted in Volume 13A of ASM Handbook. The first table of the article...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001312
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... metallographically prepared surfaces for light microscope observation. See P.E. Danielson's articles on color metallography and the metallography of zirconium, hafnium, and titanium in Volume 9 of the ASM Handbook. Caution should be exercised during the anodizing process, especially when the high voltage is...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006763
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... microstructure away from the fracture is shown in Fig. 33 . Optical metallography has historically used monochromatic lighting and black-and-white photography. However, color photography is advantageous in metallography for showing heating effects, corrosion product, and microstructural features with color...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003244
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... distribution of sulfur is shown by the presence of darkly colored areas of silver sulfide on the print. The print is a mirror image of the sulfur distribution. Voids, holes, or cracks may be represented by dark spots or lines due to hydrogen sulfide gas becoming trapped in these openings under the paper. Other...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003227
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... the aid of a hand magnifier or other suitable viewing aid. At this stage, features such as the extent of damage, general appearance of the damage zone, and the color, texture, and quantity of surface residues are of primary interest. If substantial amounts of foreign matter are visible, cleaning is...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003214
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... geometrically precise components or surfaces of controlled texture or surface finish. ELECTROPOLISHING is a nonabrasive electrochemical process for removing metal. Etching, deburring, smoothing, coloring, and machining are typical electropolishing processes. The removal of metal is done anodically...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003245
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... ferrite, martensite, and massive carbide by coloration; differentiates bainite and fine pearlite; reveals carbide particles in grain boundaries of low-carbon steel. Addition of about 0.5 to 1 mL zephiran chloride wetting agent increases speed of attack. 3 Vilella's reagent: 5 mL HCl, 1 g picric acid...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006671
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... techniques. For instance, optical microscopy of thin sections gives optical indexes and extinction angles. Crystal shape and color can be used to identify phases in either transmission or reflection modes, providing additional knowledge of the system. An example of a common application is the identification...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006466
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... output of the C-mode scanning acoustic microscope is displayed in full gray scale, in which the gray level is proportional to the amplitude of the interface signal. The gray scale can be converted into false color, and, as shown in Fig. 5 , the images also can be color coded with echo polarity...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006786
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... discolored and exhibit a characteristic color or sheen. In the case of LMIE, the fracture is, of course, covered by a visible layer of the embrittler metal. For example, at room temperature, mercury or its alloys are liquid, and other metals are present as a resolidified coating. Mercury-induced failures...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003838
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... form a hard, corrosion-resistant gold-colored watch case (bezel). Clearly, the potential exists to use these thin (2 to 10 μm, or 0.08 to 0.4 mil) coatings on wear- and corrosion-resistant parts. The limitation is that the coating must be very thin to avoid spalling or chipping. Coating is most...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006460
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... ( Ref 16 ) and orthotropic media ( Ref 17 ). Light penetration has been experimentally studied in detail with colored glasses, giving a wide range of penetration depths ( Ref 15 , 18 ). Light penetration is very important in practice because it gives a piston source at the surface of the material...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006764
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... Visual observation of the test object surface to evaluate dimensions, color, and presence of surface discontinuities Postmanufacturing inspections, in-service inspections looking for dimensional anomalies, color variation, cracks, pits, etc. Only sensitive to surface flaws Low cost, intuitive. May be...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004004
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... Technologies, Thomas Christoffel of Hatebur Equipment, Frauke Hogue of Hogue Metallography, Cory Padfield of Hyundai America, Richard Perlick of Techalloy Company, and Marc van Thiel of Nedschroef-Herentals. Also, the authors are extremely grateful for the considerable assistance with graphics, the thorough...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003247
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... cladding alloy Other clad alloys 1 (immerse), 2, 3A, 5, or 11 Any differences in structure that demarcate one layer from another Examination for solid-solution coring or segregation, and diffusion effects 3 xxx, 5 xxx series; Al-Mg casting alloys 10 Interference colors due to differences...