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color etching

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003749
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... to their crystal orientation. They become distinct by the different reflectivity caused by reaction layers or surface roughness. Heat tinting Formation of interference colors in air or other gases, usually at elevated temperature Hot etching Development and stabilization of the microstructure at elevated...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003774
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... etchant. Defines grain boundaries in most alloys and tempers by etch rate and color of stain. Reveals cold work and twinning readily 7 Acetic-picral: 20 mL acetic acid, 3 g picric acid, 20 mL H 2 O, 50 mL ethanol (95%) Same as for etchant 6 but etch for at least 15 s to develop a heavy film...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003752
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... pre-etching specimens with nital, but this is not absolutely necessary. Beraha's selenic acid reagents Table 6 Beraha's selenic acid reagents Reagent Composition Comments 1 100 mL ethanol 2 mL HCl 1 mL selenic acid For cast iron: Immerse 15–30 s. Colors phosphides red...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 August 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01a.a0006342
EISBN: 978-1-62708-179-5
... acid ((NO 2 ) 3 C 6 H 2 OH)); 25 g sodium hydroxide (NaOH); 100 mL distilled water; warm to dissolve Colors cementite (Fe 3 C) dark brown to black, depending on etching time. Three etch methods: Immerse sample in solution at 60–70 °C (140–160 °F) for 1–3 min Dip etch for 10 s to 2 min at boiling...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003765
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
.... Ref 4 p 634 4 Alkaline sodium picrate (ASP) 2 g picric acid ((NO 2 ) 3 C 6 H 2 OH)) 25 g sodium hydroxide (NaOH) 100 mL distilled water Immerse sample in solution at 60–70 °C (140–160 °F) for 1–3 min. Colors cementite (Fe 3 C) dark brown to black, depending on etching time. Ref 4 p 646 5...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 August 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01a.a0006343
EISBN: 978-1-62708-179-5
.... Tian H. and Stefanescu D.M. , Application of a Coloration Etching Method to the Study of Microstructures in Primary and Eutectic Solidification in Cast Irons , Mater. Charact. , Vol 29 ( No. 4 ), 1992 , p 329 – 333 10.1016/1044-5803(92)90104-P 13. Zhou J. , Zhong F...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003680
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... film. It discusses each step involved in the anodizing process of an aluminum or aluminum alloy specimen. The anodizing process includes pretreatments (degreasing, etching, and polishing), anodizing, coloring, and sealing. The article provides an observation of the morphology of the anodic oxide films...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003768
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... for microscopic examination Etchant Procedure Comments Picral: 4–5 g picric acid, 100 mL alcohol (a) (95% grade) Immerse 20 s or more if necessary. Rinse thoroughly in alcohol and dry. Shows general structure, grain contrast, and coloration. Etches grain boundaries where carbide is present...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 August 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01a.a0006351
EISBN: 978-1-62708-179-5
... magnification: 500×. (c) Etched with Groesbeck’s reagent (80 °C, or 175 °F; 30 s) to color the carbides. Original magnification: 200×. The matrix is martensite and the eutectic carbide is Cr 7 C 3 type, which imparts excellent wear resistance. Fig. 24 Microstructure of ASTM A532 class III, type...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 August 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01a.a0006350
EISBN: 978-1-62708-179-5
... iron containing cementite (C) particles and cementite in ledeburite (L), which will harm machinability. Note the ferrite halos (FH) around the nodules. The specimen was etched with 2% nital. For version with color etching using Beraha’s CdS reagent and viewed with polarized light, see the article...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003754
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... illumination, the zirconium is brown-blue and shows some grain orientation. The steel is yellow-green. 15×. (b) Note the difference between the anisotropic zirconium (top) and the isotropic steel (bottom) under polarized light illumination. 85×. (P.E. Danielson) Fig. 25 Color etching (10% aqueous Na...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003737
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... 625 13.  (a) 33 mL HCl and 67 mL H 2 O Beraha's tint etch for nickel-base alloys; add 0.6–1 g K 2 S 2 O 5 (potassium metabisulfite) to 100 mL stock solution a; immerse (never swab) 60–150 s, slowly agitate; if colors are not developed, add 1–1.5 g FeCl 3 or 2–10 g NH 4 F-HF (ammonium bifluoride...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006684
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
..., especially wrought alloys (as-cast alloys are easier), are very difficult to color-etch. Bright field reveals a weak image as the interference film produced is thin (inclusions are visible, indicated by arrows). Polarized light often dramatically enhances image quality (the sensitive tint filter enhances...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 7
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v07.a0006056
EISBN: 978-1-62708-175-7
... to grey in color. Etching for longer times reveals grain boundaries and nonhomogeneous microstructures. Binder enrichment is an example of an engineered functional gradient, which provides toughness at the edge of a part. A zone at the surface, typically <40 μm thick, contains a higher metallic binder...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.9781627081702
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 7
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v07.a0006116
EISBN: 978-1-62708-175-7
... and Microstructures of Carbon and Low-Alloy Steels , ASM Handbook, Vol 9, Metallography and Microstructures , ASM International , 2004 , p 608 – 626 6. Petzow G. , Metallographic Etching , ASM International , 1999 , p 94 – 102 7. Beraha E. and Shpigler B. , Color Metallography...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003767
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... not affected 14. 10 g K 3 Fe(CN) 6 , 10 g KOH or NaOH, 100 mL H 2 O Murakami's reagent. Use at room temperature to 60 s to reveal carbides; σ phase faintly revealed by etching to 3 min. Use at 80 °C (175 °F) to boiling up to 60 min to darken carbides. Sigma may be colored blue, ferrite yellow to yellow...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003790
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... dimension, average, μm 2.93 2.38 Longest dimension, maximum, μm 18.38 14.64 Source: Ref 15 Fig. 22 Microstructures of a 357 aluminum alloy component with T5 artificial aging at (a) 100×, (b) 200×, and (c) 1000× prepared using Keller's etch (top) and 0.5% HF acid (bottom) Fig...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003769
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... in commercial aluminum alloys Morphology Phase Color of precipitates under light microscope Identification Birefringes Other methods (a) Needles β-AlFeSi Gray Moderate, light to dark gray Selective etching, EDS Al 7 Cu 2 Fe Light gray, outlined Moderate, light to dark gray Selective...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003245
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... or more to darken cementite. Solution will attack mounts made from Bakelite. 13 50 mL cold saturated aqueous sodium thiosulfate, 1 g potassium metabisulfite Klemm's tint etch; colors ferrite. Immerse for 40 to 100 s until surface is colored. A light pre-etch with nital or picral improves sharpness...