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color etchants

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Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003244
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... produce selective results in that only one phase will be attacked or colored. A vast number of etchants have been developed; the more commonly used etchants will be listed in this article (see also ASTM E 407). Macroetching is used to detect variations in soundness, chemistry, hardness, or strain. A...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003247
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
..., nickel silver 50 mL CrO 3 (10 to 15%), 1 to 2 drops HCl Immersion (add HCl at time of use) Same as above. Color by electrolytic etching or with FeCl 3 etchants. 10 g (NH 4 ) 2 S 2 O 8 , 90 mL water Immersion (use either cold or boiling) Coppers, brasses, bronzes, nickel silver, aluminum...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001279
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... enameling. It examines the role of coating thickness, firing time and temperature, metal substrate, and color on the performance of enameled surfaces. The article concludes with a discussion on the properties of enameled surfaces, factors considered in process control, and test procedures for evaluating the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001305
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
..., and buffing, are reviewed. The article also explains the procedures of electrocleaning, electropolishing, electroplating, painting, surface blackening, coloring, terne coatings, and thermal spraying. It includes useful information on the surface modification of stainless steels, namely, ion...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003245
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
.... Picral is the best general-purpose etchant for all predominantly pearlitic gray, malleable, and ductile cast irons. It gives a clean, uniform etch to both coarse and fine pearlitic structures. Pearlite should be etched until it is medium-to-light brown in color, so that graphite present in the structure...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006684
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
...). The microstructure of annealed wrought aluminum brass after etching using potassium dichromate ( Fig. 23 ) reveals the grain structure and annealing twins in black and white in a grain-contrast mode. When an etchant produces a grain-contrast etch in bright field, it can be viewed in color by switching...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001250
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... permitted to become the dominant reaction, as occurs when the anode current density is too high. Under this condition, no tin dissolves and the anodes take on a brown or black oxide film. The anode current density should be reduced until the normal film color returns. If this is allowed to become thick...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001308
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... popular protective treatment, because it does not alter the original texture of a surface. Clear lacquers smooth out roughened surfaces and produce various degrees of gloss, which may be undesirable. Anodizing of a blasted aluminum surface results in a gray color because of embedded abrasive particles in...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0001834
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... intergranular and to determine if the fracture part is specific to any phase or constituent present. Although such specimens can be examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), light microscopy is more efficient for such work, and certain information, such as the color or polarization response of...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006765
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... be used that reveals all of the structure at first. Later, it may be useful to use a selective etchant that reveals only the phase or constituent of interest or at least produces strong contrast or color differences between two or more phases present, to improve the precision of microstructural...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006629
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... tests are used to identify an analyte based on a color change or precipitation ( Ref 16 ). A wide variety of free elements, anions, cations, alloys, and even organic compounds can be identified by chemical spot tests with simple reagents. After qualitative identification, an appropriate instrumental...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003827
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
..., to contamination of the acid baths, or to the wrong choice of etchant. Careful thought should be given to all materials that come in contact with beryllium. By taking the proactive stance of understanding the chemical composition of these materials, corrosion problems can be avoided...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003065
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... , minimum. For most white glass, the iron content (Fe 2 O 3 ) must be less than 0.03%. Float glass, colored container glass, and fiberglass can tolerate a higher iron content. Other impurities, including refractory heavy mineral chrome and nickel, are particularly detrimental. Rather than melting, they form...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006466
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... output of the C-mode scanning acoustic microscope is displayed in full gray scale, in which the gray level is proportional to the amplitude of the interface signal. The gray scale can be converted into false color, and, as shown in Fig. 5 , the images also can be color coded with echo polarity...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001311
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... and time at temperature, it becomes thicker and darker. The film acquires a distinct straw yellow color at about 370 °C (700 °F) and a blue color at 480 °C (900 °F). At about 650 °C (1200 °F), it assumes the dull gray appearance of a light scale. Alloying elements and surface contaminants also...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004004
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... . Fig. 4 Examples of grain flow in the underhead fillet region of headed fasteners. (a) Uniform grain flow pattern in alloy 718. Etchant: 6 mL H 2 O, 60 mL HCl, and 6 g CuCl 2 . (b) Fold in the fillet of A-286. Etchant: Marble's reagent. Courtesy of F. Hogue, Hogue Metallography Fig. 5...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003022
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... rubbed or bent. For RFI shielding applications, the zinc coating is normally applied only to the part interior. Plastic parts often are coated with an adhesion-promoting paint before metal spraying. Color-coded paints are used to indicate compatibility with specific plastics. They can be applied at 20...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005967
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001265
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... such parameters as initiation and plating rate, stability (versus dragged-in catalyst; versus excessively high bath activity; versus long shutdown periods; versus Cu(I) oxide), deposit stress, color, ductility, and so on. Prior to development of well-characterized and controlled trace additives...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0001836
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... preclude confusing double shadows. The thickness of the carbon film deposited is important. For high resolution, a thinner carbon film (yellowish interference color) is preferable, but when integrity of the film is a problem, such as in the replication of very rough surfaces, a thicker film (grayish...