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collimators

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006455
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... plates, cylinders, and flanges. The article discusses various control methods, including the use of lead screens; protection against backscatter and scatter from external objects; and the use of masks, diaphragms, collimators, and filtration. The radiographic appearance of specific types of flaws is also...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001763
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
... Abstract This article presents the experimental and theoretical aspects of small-angle scattering, and discusses specific applications used in the characterization of metals, glasses, polymers, and ceramics. The basic methods of collimating x-rays, the cause of smearing from a line source...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006448
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
...: use of lead screens; protection against backscatter and scatter from external objects; and use of masks, diaphragms, collimators, and filtration. The article concludes with a discussion on image conversion media, including recording media, lead screens, lead oxide screens, and fluorescent intensifying...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06a.a0005630
EISBN: 978-1-62708-174-0
... single-lens elements, although multielement designs are often used. These lens elements can be reflective or transmissive. Collimator focal lengths of 60, 75, 100, 120, 150, and 200 mm are common. Focus lenses range from 100, 125, 150, 200, 250, to 300 mm. Even longer focal lengths are used in remote...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 24
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 June 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v24.a0006583
EISBN: 978-1-62708-290-7
... material produced by conventional PM Tensile/bending strength severely limited by microcracks ++ ++ + Commercial production W ++ ++ + X-ray collimators in production Microparts demonstrated WC-Co Very poor due to high amount of porosity ++ + - Poor microstructure/material properties...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 24
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 June 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v24.a0006545
EISBN: 978-1-62708-290-7
.... When incident on an optic with a positive focal length, a collimated beam will form a focus near the focal distance. A collimated beam is a beam with little divergence at the plane where it is incident upon the optic. So, typically, a collimated beam is first generated and then focused. The...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001757
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
... powder sample in a collimated monochromatic beam of x-radiation. For crystalline materials, diffraction takes place as described in “Introduction to Diffraction Methods” to produce a diffraction pattern. The diffraction pattern is recorded on film or using detector techniques, then analyzed to provide...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006656
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... cross section, transition, in situ, etc. without the need to alter the sample by grinding. Thus, objects can be analyzed without sampling, by collimating the incident x-ray beam and aligning it on an area of interest. Using a conventional laboratory x-ray source, a target spot size diameter as low as 30...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001765
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
...-wavelength data is the preferred method at the former, while constant-angle data are collected in the time-of-flight mode at pulsed neutron sources. For reactors, data are generally collected in a Debye-Scherrer geometry with a highly collimated, monochromatic beam impinging on the sample from a Bragg...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006644
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... providing intense, low-divergent x-ray beams of wide spectral range has allowed the extensive development of synchrotron x-ray topography techniques. In x-ray diffraction topography, a collimated area-filling ribbon of x-rays is incident on the single-crystal sample at a set Bragg angle, and the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001399
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
... the areas that need to reach the solder melting temperature are relatively small, confining thermal energy to a small area is critical. The focus of gas flow is usually controlled via nozzle design or the use of baffle plates. The nozzle collimates the gas stream to optimize the gas impingement across...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006680
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... characterization of a substance consists of placing a sample in a collimated monochromatic x-ray beam. For crystalline materials, diffraction takes place as described in the article “Introduction to Diffraction Methods” in this Division to produce a diffraction pattern. The diffraction pattern is recorded using...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001762
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
... and collimation system before striking the sample. The sample is generally a cylinder or a flat plate. For samples composed of atoms of low atomic weight that do not absorb the x-rays strongly, it is often preferable to use a cylindrical sample with dimensions small enough to avoid large geometric...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001728
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
... shows the light path through a Czerny-Turner monochromator, a typical configuration. Light enters the monochromator through the entrance slit and passes to the collimating mirror. The collimated light strikes the plane diffraction grating and is diffracted at an angle dependent on its wavelengh. Some of...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003238
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003200
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... collimated into a dense, extremely energetic beam by the accelerating potential between the cathode and the anode. The high-energy beam thus formed passes through a small-diameter hole in the anode. Because of the mutual repulsion among neighboring electrons, the beam requires further collimation below the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06a.a0005598
EISBN: 978-1-62708-174-0
... used to constrict the arc and to form a collimated plasma jet that exits the nozzle orifice. A plasma orifice gas and a focusing gas from the same supply are used; the latter is delivered via channels between the plasma welding electrode and the constricting nozzle. The focusing gas results in greater...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006456
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... detector arrays (LDAs), consisting of a one-dimensional (1-D) array of pixels that were more widely used in the past, the use of flat panel detectors is less time-consuming, because during the scanning a cone beam rather than a fan beam (collimated x-ray beam) and the registration of a 2-D projection can...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001362
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
... and contact tip for the delivery of the consumable wire is required ( Fig. 2 ). A water-cooled copper alloy nozzle is used to constrict the arc and to form a collimated plasma jet that exits the nozzle orifice. A plasma orifice gas and a focusing gas from the same supply are used; the latter is...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006654
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... are generated in all directions from the metal anode, and only a small fraction come through the beryllium window of the tube. This fraction of x-rays is too divergent to be directly used for any diffraction measurements. Laboratory diffractometers have presample slits or optics to trim and collimate...