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cold-work-induced strengthening

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Published: 01 January 1996
Fig. 15 Effect of cold-work-induced strengthening on fracture toughness. The percentage of cold work is provided next to data points. Source: Ref 49 , 52 More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 19
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1996
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v19.a0002404
EISBN: 978-1-62708-193-1
... orientation, strain rate, thermal aging, and neutron irradiation on base metal and weld toughness. It discusses the effect of cold-work-induced strengthening on fracture toughness. The article examines the fracture toughness behavior of aged base metal and welding-induced heat-affected zones. It concludes...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003136
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... copper or may be intentionally alloyed to molten cathode copper, also imparts resistance to softening to cold-worked metal. Silver-bearing coppers and cadmium-bearing coppers are used for applications such as automotive radiators and electrical conductors that must operate at temperatures above about 200...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006282
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
... titanium alloys ALMOST ALL METALS AND METAL ALLOYS can be strengthened by being subjected to cold working. Titanium and titanium alloys are no exceptions. The mode of plastic deformation that takes place may vary considerably among different metals or metal alloys. The properties of metals that have...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006276
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
...-worked tempers to meet standard requirements based on temper names applicable to specific products. (c) Tempers produced by controlled amounts of cold work followed by a thermal treatment to produce order strengthening. (d) Annealed to meet specific mechanical property requirements. (e...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006274
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
... for relief of stresses (induced by quenching) and more complex aging sequences (double or even triple aging), along with the incorporation of cold work. For more details, see the article “Metallurgy of Heat Treatable Aluminum Alloys” in this Volume. Non-heat-treatable aluminum is strengthened from...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001418
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
... Abstract Non-heat-treatable aluminum alloys constitute a group of alloys that rely solely upon cold work and solid solution strengthening for their strength properties. This article focuses on the weldability and weld properties of different classes on non-heat-treatable aluminum alloys...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006261
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
... Remove residual stresses that develop during mechanical working or fabrication Refine the microstructure, such as promoting new grain formation during recrystallization annealing Redistribute or dissolve second-phase particles, such as carbides and/or intermetallic phases Precipitate desirable...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006267
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
... tend to stabilize the hcp structure and decrease stacking-fault energy ( Ref 3 ). The fcc-to-hcp transformation reaction is quite sluggish, even for pure cobalt. However, in metastable compositions, it can be promoted by cold work via a mechanism involving the coalescence of stacking faults ( Ref 4...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 20
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1997
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v20.a0002462
EISBN: 978-1-62708-194-8
... resistance by solid-solution strengthening and work hardening. Although in principle this phase diagram exhibits a positively sloping solvus, a necessary condition for a precipitation-hardening system, difficulty in nucleating the face-centered cubic (fcc) Al 3 Mg 2 precipitates has precluded...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006275
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
... processes and creep properties have great significance. Attempts to strengthen the metal by reducing the grain size or by cold working (strain hardening) have proved unsuccessful. Lead-tin alloys, for example, may recrystallize immediately and completely at room temperature. Lead-silver alloys respond...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006265
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
...-solution-strengthened alloys to heat treatment is very much dependent on the initial material condition. Generally speaking, when the material is not in the cold- or warm-worked condition, the principal response to heat treatment is a change in the amount and morphology of secondary carbide phases present...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006286
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
... to improve ease of fabrication during both hot and cold working operations. Addition of sufficient β stabilizer to titanium compositions also confers a heat treatment capability that permits significant strengthening to be achieved by controlled decomposition of β phase to α phase during the heat treatment...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003995
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
.... The article describes the metallurgical processes in grain refinement of austenite steel by hot working, such as recovery and recrystallization and strain-induced transformation. The grain refinement in high strength low alloy steel by alloy addition is also discussed. The article provides an outline...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01.a0001032
EISBN: 978-1-62708-161-0
... sophisticated test for formability in cold upset forging, and it is a common quality control test in the hot forging of carbon and alloy steels. Compression forging is a useful method of assessing the frictional conditions in hot working. The principal disadvantage of the compression test is that tests...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 18
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v18.a0006388
EISBN: 978-1-62708-192-4
... and dimensional stability H Strain hardened (wrought products only) Applied to products that are strengthened through cold working. The strain hardening may be followed by supplementary thermal treatment, which produces some reduction in strength. The “H” is always followed by two or more digits, for example...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006278
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
... Abstract Cast and wrought coppers can be strengthened by cold working. This article provides information on minor alloying elements, such as beryllium, silicon, nickel, tin, zinc, and chromium, used to strengthen copper. It details annealing and recrystallization and grain growth...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005455
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... to structural materials, namely, solid-solution strengthening, age/precipitation hardening, dispersion strengthening, grain size reduction, strengthening from cold work, and strengthening from interfaces. It explains the application of predictive models in the atomistic modeling of dislocation structures...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01.a0001025
EISBN: 978-1-62708-161-0
... condition. In addition to hot-rolled products, HSLA steels are also furnished as cold-rolled sheet and forgings. This article describes the different categories of HSLA steels and provides a summary of characteristics and intended uses of HSLA steels described in the American Society for Testing...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003149
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... instances for unalloyed zirconium. Cold Work and Recrystallization The degree to which unalloyed zirconium can be cold worked depends both on metal purity and on the method of reduction. Zirconium work hardens rapidly, reaching maximum hardness and strength after cold reduction of only about 20...