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cold-work-induced strengthening

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 19
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1996
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v19.a0002404
EISBN: 978-1-62708-193-1
... in fracture mechanics evaluations. The article explains the effect of crack orientation, strain rate, thermal aging, and neutron irradiation on base metal and weld toughness. It discusses the effect of cold-work-induced strengthening on fracture toughness. The article examines the fracture toughness behavior...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003136
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
.... Fig. 6 Anisotropic stress-relaxation behavior in bending for highly cold-worked C51000 strip. Data are for 5% Sn phosphor bronze cold rolled 93% (reduction in area) to 0.25 mm (0.01 in.) and heat treated 2 h at 260 °C (500 °F). Graphs at left are for stress relaxation transverse to the rolling...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006282
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
...) Strengthening effect of manganese on flow strength of titanium-manganese alloys annealed at 750 °C (1380 °F) Fig. 16 Grain shape of titanium. (a) Distorted grains are evidence of cold work. (b) The deformed grains in (a) changed to strain-free grains by recrystallization at 790 °C (1450 ºF). Etchant...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006261
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
... Remove residual stresses that develop during mechanical working or fabrication Refine the microstructure, such as promoting new grain formation during recrystallization annealing Redistribute or dissolve second-phase particles, such as carbides and/or intermetallic phases Precipitate desirable...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006286
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
... are metastable alloys. Cold work at ambient temperature or heating to a slightly elevated temperature can result in partial transformation to α as the alloy reverts to the equilibrium condition. That metastability is exploited to produce exceptional structures from β alloys. The principal advantages of β alloys...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 18
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v18.a0006388
EISBN: 978-1-62708-192-4
... may be cold or hot rolled, depending on the process temperature; in hot rolling, the temperature is high enough to avoid work hardening during metal processing. Intermediate annealing between successive rolling steps may be carried out. Extruded products are obtained by forcing the heated metal...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006276
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
... strengthening and work hardening. Finally, the article provides information on the equipment used for the heat treating of copper and copper alloys, including batch-type atmosphere furnaces, continuous atmosphere furnaces, and salt baths. annealing bronzes cold forming copper copper alloys dispersion...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006274
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
... for relief of stresses (induced by quenching) and more complex aging sequences (double or even triple aging), along with the incorporation of cold work. For more details, see the article “Metallurgy of Heat Treatable Aluminum Alloys” in this Volume. Non-heat-treatable aluminum is strengthened from...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 20
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1997
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v20.a0002462
EISBN: 978-1-62708-194-8
... followed by one or more digits. T3 Solution treated, quenched, cold worked, and naturally aged to a substantially stable condition Products that are cold worked after solution treatment and the effect of cold work is recognized in mechanical property limits. T4 Solution treated, quenched...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006267
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
..., the corrosion-resistant cobalt-base alloys first are cold worked and then subsequently aged to provide a high-strength condition. The cold work and aging promote the fcc-to-hcp transformation that substantially strengthens the matrix. The aging conditions for these alloys are shown in Table 6 . Ultimet alloy...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003995
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
.... The article describes the metallurgical processes in grain refinement of austenite steel by hot working, such as recovery and recrystallization and strain-induced transformation. The grain refinement in high strength low alloy steel by alloy addition is also discussed. The article provides an outline...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01.a0001025
EISBN: 978-1-62708-161-0
... condition. In addition to hot-rolled products, HSLA steels are also furnished as cold-rolled sheet and forgings. This article describes the different categories of HSLA steels and provides a summary of characteristics and intended uses of HSLA steels described in the American Society for Testing...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001418
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
... to weld thick section aluminum armor plate Abstract Non-heat-treatable aluminum alloys constitute a group of alloys that rely solely upon cold work and solid solution strengthening for their strength properties. This article focuses on the weldability and weld properties of different classes...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006275
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
... industrial handling. The absolute melting point of lead is 327.4 °C (621.3 °F). Therefore, in applications in which lead is used, recovery and recrystallization processes and creep properties have great significance. Attempts to strengthen the metal by reducing the grain size or by cold working (strain...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 7
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v07.a0006125
EISBN: 978-1-62708-175-7
... Table 1 Processing ranges for tungsten and molybdenum Process Tungsten temperature range Molybdenum temperature range °C °F °C °F Hot working 1500–1700 2730–3090 1200–1400 2190–2550 Warm working 500–1200 930–2190 500–1100 930–2010 Cold working 20–200 70–390...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01.a0001032
EISBN: 978-1-62708-161-0
... , 1946 , p 749 – 777 7. Clark C.L. and Russ J.J. , A Laboratory Evaluation of the Hot Working Characteristics of Metals , Trans. AIME , Vol 167 , 1946 , p 736 – 748 8. Okamoto T. , Fukuda T. , and Hagita H. , Material Fracture in Cold Forging—Systematic...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006250
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
... important purpose of heat treatment is to harden or strengthen an alloy. Almost any metal or alloy can be softened by annealing after cold working, but fewer alloy systems can be strengthened or hardened by heat treatment. Metallurgists often use the term heat treatable alloys in reference to alloys...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003771
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... structure and decrease stacking-fault energy ( Ref 3 ). The fcc to hcp transformation reaction is quite sluggish even for pure cobalt. However, in metastable compositions, it can be promoted by cold work via a mechanism involving the coalescence of stacking faults ( Ref 4 ). This phenomenon provides...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003149
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... Stress-Corrosion Cracking (SCC) Product Forms and Properties Corrosion Resistance Metal Processing and Fabrication Metallurgy of Zirconium and Its Alloys Alloy Grades Corrosion Resistance Hafnium The Allotropic Transformation Cold Work and Recrystallization Anisotropy...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006270
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
... and alpha alloy Ti-6Al-4V. For Ti-10V-2Fe-3Al, R = 0.05 and F = 1 to 30 Hz. For mill-annealed (MA) Ti-6Al-4V, R = 0.08 and F = 1 to 25 Hz. For recrystallization-annealed (RA) Ti-6Al-4V, R = 0.08 and F = 6 Hz. Fig. 20 Effects of grain size, oxygen content, and cold work on fatigue strength...