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cold forging

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003980
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... Abstract This article discusses the operation of upset forging machines and selection of the machine size. It describes several types of upsetter heading tools and their materials. The article reviews the cold shearing and hot shearing methods for preparing blanks for hot upset forging. It...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004032
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... Abstract This article lists functions of lubricants common to the majority of applications and processes. It discusses the lubricant candidates widely used in forging: conversion coatings with soaps (stearate compounds) and molybdenum disulfide for cold forging; oil-based thick, film oil or...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004004
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... rolling, and knurling. Cold-heading machines vary in terms of the number of dies/stations, forging load, blank or wire size, blank cut-off length, speed, transfer mechanism, and special finishing capabilities, such as thread forming and knurling. Figure 8 shows a typical layout inside a six-die cold...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003976
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
.... Recommendations on the selection of the materials for hot forging, hot extrusion, cold heading, and cold extrusion are presented. The article discusses the methods of characterizing abrasive wear and factors affecting abrasive wear. It discusses various die coatings and surface treatments used to extend the lives...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003987
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... forging coining composite metals copper dimensional control hammers lubricants steels surface finish COINING is a closed-die forging operation, usually performed cold, in which all surfaces of the workpiece are confined or restrained, resulting in a well-defined imprint of the die on the...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003183
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
..., precision forging, and cold forging. computer-aided design die design forging processes materials selection types of hammers types of presses FORGING MACHINES fall into three categories according to their method of operation. Mechanical forging presses are classified as stroke-restricted...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003990
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... and rotational motion, while lower die rotates. (b) Upper die has translational, rotational, and orbital (rocking) motion; lower die is stationary. (c) Upper die has orbital (rocking) motion only; lower die has translational motion. Abstract Radial forging is a hot- or cold-forming process...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0009005
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... workability tests and illustrates their application in practical forging situations. Workability tests for open-die forging of cast structures, hot and cold open-die forging of recrystallized structures, fracture-controlled defect formation, establishing effects of process variables and secondary tensile...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003986
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... is the same as that shown for complex forgings in Table 3 . Flashless forging is a common forging process used in both cold forging and on multistation hot forging machines such as upsetters and automatic forging machines. In cold forging, it is generally applied to axisymmetric forgings that may...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003996
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... stationary die. Orbital forging is used to produce parts with surfaces of revolution (such as impellers and discs) with both hot and cold forging processes for aluminum alloys. Orbital forging provides highly refined, close-tolerance final shapes. Additional information on orbital forging is available in the...
Book Chapter

By H.W. Sizek
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003984
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... hot-working or a cold-working operation. Primary metals producers use hot-work radial forging to produce billet or bar. Starting stock can be ingots or cogs from ingots that have been forged to an intermediate size with an open-die forging operation. (See the article “Practical Aspects of Converting...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003994
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
...-10Hf-1Ti, can be forged directly from the as-cast ingot. Most impression-die forging experience, however, has been with unalloyed niobium. Unalloyed niobium and Nb-1Zr can be cold worked or warmed slightly to less than 425 °C (800 °F) for forging. The other alloy, Nb-10Hf-1Ti, generally requires...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003991
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... tonf) press was required. Carbon and alloy steels are by far the most commonly forged materials and are readily forged into a wide variety of shapes using hot-, warm-, or cold-forging processes and standard equipment. Section thickness, shape complexity, and forging size are limited primarily by the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003979
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... to die trimming, forging materials can be divided into two groups: those that can be trimmed cold and those that should be trimmed hot. Almost all materials can be cold trimmed, but some must have special treatment after forging and prior to cold trimming. Generally, a forging can be cold trimmed...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003973
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... overall height. Crank presses with modified drives such as the knuckle-joint drive and the linkage drive are also used in mechanical presses, but mainly for cold forging. The sinusoidal slide displacement of an eccentric press is compared with those of a knuckle-joint and a linkage driven press ( Fig...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003988
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... die. Usually, the preform is heated, but powder forging may be performed using a preform in the warm or cold state. The process is sometimes referred to as P/M (powder metallurgy) forging, P/M hot forming, or simply by the acronym P/F. When the preform has been sintered, the process is often referred...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003998
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
.... (Exceptions are alloys with more than ∼6 wt% Li, which also have a body-centered cubic phase, although forging applications of these alloys are not known to the present authors.) As is generally the case with hcp metals, magnesium alloys have limited cold workability. The significance of this fact is perhaps...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003992
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... preferred for all types of stainless steel, because less power is required and because there is less danger of cracking than in cold trimming. The precipitation-hardening stainless steels must be hot trimmed to prevent flash-line cracks, which can penetrate the forging. It is often practical to hot trim...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003997
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... by welding with an L6 rod, remachining, and heat treating; O1 tool steel heat treated to 58 to 60 HRC has also been used for punches and blades for cold trimming. When close trimming is required, blades and punches fabricated from a high-alloy tool steel such as D2, hardened to 58 to 60 HRC, will...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003999
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... and cold cleaning, grinding, and conditioning. If the ruptures are not removed, they may extend into the body of the part. Primary working methods and equipment vary from hydraulic press conversion to rotary forge conversion to rolling mill conversion. Figure 2 shows a radial forge converting...