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cold and cryogenic treatment

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04a.a0005822
EISBN: 978-1-62708-165-8
... Abstract Cold treating of steel can be used to enhance the transformation of austenite to martensite and improve the stress relief of castings and machined parts. Cryogenic treatment of steel is a distinct process that uses extreme cold to modify the performance of materials. This article...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003196
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... the recommended temperatures for normalizing and austenitizing, it provides information on mechanism, cooling media, principal variables, process procedures, and applications of heat treating. In addition, the article gives a short note on the cold and cryogenic treatment of steel. age hardening annealing...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4D
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04d.a0005973
EISBN: 978-1-62708-168-9
... to martensite, cooling to room temperature, or to subzero temperature, is sometimes applied. (Deep) Cryogenic or subzero treatments, especially of high-alloyed cold-work tool steels, have attracted some attention in recent years. Some published results show promising improvements in wear resistance...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02.a0001110
EISBN: 978-1-62708-162-7
... and the degree of cold work. At high temperatures, the NbTi system forms a β solid solution. The fine-scale dislocation cell structure achieved by cold working combined with the α-titanium precipitates produced in heat treatment yields an inhomogeneous microstructure. These defects are the flux pinning...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 7
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v07.a0006128
EISBN: 978-1-62708-175-7
... H. , The Effects of Cryogenic and Stress Relief Treatments on the Temper Carbides Precipitation of an AISI D2 Tool Steel , Proc. Ninth Int. Conf. Tooling ( Leoben, Austria ), 2012 , p 43 – 50 3. Pellizzari M. and Molinari A. , Deep Cryogenic Treatment of Cold Working Tool...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02b.a0006728
EISBN: 978-1-62708-210-5
... of a solution treatment. The low quench sensitivity of this Al-Zn-Mg alloy requires only a moderate rate of cooling from brazing and soldering temperatures. Composition limits for aluminum alloy 7005 Table 1 Composition limits for aluminum alloy 7005 Element Composition, wt% Si 0.35 max Fe...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 19
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1996
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v19.a0002404
EISBN: 978-1-62708-193-1
... Abstract This article describes the fracture toughness behavior of austenitic stainless steels and their welds at ambient, elevated, and cryogenic temperatures. Minimum expected toughness values are provided for use in fracture mechanics evaluations. The article explains the effect of crack...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006252
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
... for precipitation-hardened alloys. It examines the consequences of aging treatments on the residual stress, namely, annealing, precipitation heat treatment, and cryogenic treatment. The article provides information on uphill quenching, which attempts to reverse thermal gradients encountered during quenching...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02b.a0006701
EISBN: 978-1-62708-210-5
... . Maximum service temperature is approximately 150 °C (300 °F). Good low-temperature properties make it suitable for use down to −190 °C (−320 °F) in cryogenic applications. Alloy 5254 has excellent resistance to general atmospheric corrosion; it can be used in industrial and seacoast atmospheres without...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01.a0001046
EISBN: 978-1-62708-161-0
... use of austenitizing elements such as nickel, manganese, and nitrogen. These steels are essentially nonmagnetic in the annealed condition and can be hardened only by cold working. They usually possess excellent cryogenic properties and good high-temperature strength. Chromium content generally varies...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02b.a0006611
EISBN: 978-1-62708-210-5
... 8 1.2 10 3 17 2.4 13 1.9 11 1.6 8 1.2 6 0.9 Heat Treatment Annealing temperature is 415 °C (775 °F). Solution treatment for all products consists of heating to 540 ±5 °C (1000 ±10 °F) and quenching in cold water. Time at solution temperature depends on the section thickness...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02b.a0006730
EISBN: 978-1-62708-210-5
... 1.50 25 75 11 75.3 55.5 7.5 5.5 −195 −320 11 96.7 71.3 8.3 6.1 Source: Ref 1 Heat Treatment Typical heat treatments for alloy 7039 include: Solution treatment : Heat to 460 – 500 °C (860 – 930 °F), soak 2 h, quench in cold water. Sheet stock should be quenched...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003140
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... in such applications. Unlike α-β and β alloys, α alloys cannot be significantly strengthened by heat treatment. Generally, α alloys are annealed or recrystallized to remove residual stresses induced by cold working. Alpha alloys have good weldability because they are insensitive to heat treatment. They generally...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02b.a0006608
EISBN: 978-1-62708-210-5
... (0.25 to 2.0 in.) in T84, T8, and T82 tempers. Tempers are obtained through a conventional one step aging treatment, preceded by a moderate level of cold work. Artificial aging is optimized to provide a good balance of static properties, fracture toughness, and excellent stress corrosion resistance...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4D
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04d.a0005946
EISBN: 978-1-62708-168-9
... treating principal types of tool steels. It reviews the various heat treating processes, namely, normalizing, annealing, stress relieving, austenitizing, quenching, and tempering, and surface treatments and cold treating. The article also provides information on the applicability of these processes...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4D
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04d.a0005961
EISBN: 978-1-62708-168-9
...: Typical Mechanical Properties of PH 13-8 Mo <xref rid="a0005961-t8" ref-type="table">(Table 8)</xref> Type S13800 has good fabricating characteristics and can be age-hardened by a single low-temperature treatment. Cold work prior to aging increases aging, especially in the lower aging temperatures...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04a.a0005813
EISBN: 978-1-62708-165-8
... and the HPGQ processes are performed in the same chamber. As an alternative, treatment chambers are dedicated for LPC only. These treatment chambers are part of multichamber systems, where HPGQ is performed in specific cold chambers. The applied carburizing strategies are identical for both types of equipment...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02.a0001112
EISBN: 978-1-62708-162-7
... or a mixture of its precursors, given that a final heat treatment of the wire is necessary anyway (otherwise, it would have been logical to deal with PMS alone). In both cases, a compaction step is used before insertion in the sheath. This is either a hot or a cold process. The first yields a 100% packing...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003115
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... treatment. Also, because the strain-hardening rates of ferrite are relatively low and cold work significantly lowers ductility, the ferritic stainless steels are not often strengthened by cold work. Properties and Applications Typical annealed yield and tensile strengths for ferritic stainless steels...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006265
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
... alloys, and the effects of cold work on aging response and grain growth with examples. annealing chemical composition fixtures heat treatment precipitation hardening solution heat treatment stress relieving superalloys surface degradation wrought nickel alloys NICKEL ALLOYS derive...