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cold and cryogenic treatment

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04a.a0005822
EISBN: 978-1-62708-165-8
...Abstract Abstract Cold treating of steel can be used to enhance the transformation of austenite to martensite and improve the stress relief of castings and machined parts. Cryogenic treatment of steel is a distinct process that uses extreme cold to modify the performance of materials...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003196
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
.... Tabulating the recommended temperatures for normalizing and austenitizing, it provides information on mechanism, cooling media, principal variables, process procedures, and applications of heat treating. In addition, the article gives a short note on the cold and cryogenic treatment of steel. Heat...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02.a0001110
EISBN: 978-1-62708-162-7
.... Lee P.J. , McKinnell J.C. , and Larbalestier D.C. , Restricted, Novel Heat Treatments for Obtaining High J c in Nb 46.5 wt% Ti , in Advances in Cryogenic Engineering , Vol 36 , Fickett F.R. and Reed R.P. , Ed., Plenum Press , 1990 , p 287 72. Lee P.J...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4D
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04d.a0005973
EISBN: 978-1-62708-168-9
... and surface engineering of tools and dies , June 2005 ( Pula, Croatia ), Smoljan B. et al. , Ed., Croatian Society for Heat Treatment and Surface Engineering , p 11 – 20 10. Pellizzari M. and Molinari A. , Deep cryogenic treatment of cold work tool steels , Proc. 6th Int...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 7
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v07.a0006128
EISBN: 978-1-62708-175-7
... Precipitation of an AISI D2 Tool Steel , Proc. Ninth Int. Conf. Tooling ( Leoben, Austria ), 2012 , p 43 – 50 3. Pellizzari M. and Molinari A. , Deep Cryogenic Treatment of Cold Working Tool Steel , Proc. Sixth Int. Conf. Tooling ( Karlstad, Sweden ), 2002 , p 547 – 557 4...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02b.a0006728
EISBN: 978-1-62708-210-5
... temperatures are sufficiently high to effectively solution heat treat during brazing. Heat treatments are: Physical properties are given in Table 2 and mechanical properties in Tables 3 to 5 . The alloy has high mechanical properties in the age-hardened condition both at room and cryogenic...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01.a0001046
EISBN: 978-1-62708-161-0
... use of austenitizing elements such as nickel, manganese, and nitrogen. These steels are essentially nonmagnetic in the annealed condition and can be hardened only by cold working. They usually possess excellent cryogenic properties and good high-temperature strength. Chromium content generally varies...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02.a0001063
EISBN: 978-1-62708-162-7
...-T351 2091-T851 Weldability … 2219 2219 2219 Weldalite 049 Weldalite 049 Weldalite 049 Weldalite 049 Cryogenic properties … 2519 2519 2519 2090/8090 2090/8090 8090 2090 Superplastic forming 7475 … … … 2090/8090 … … … Weldalite 049 Source: Ref 2...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 19
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1996
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v19.a0002404
EISBN: 978-1-62708-193-1
... , 55 , 85 , and 125 Fig. 30 Temperature dependence of J c for nonirradiated and irradiated 20% cold-worked type 316. Values of dJ / da (in MPa) are provided in parentheses. Source: Ref 133 , 134 , 135 Fig. 31 Effect of irradiation to 3 and 8 dpa on the fracture toughness...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003140
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... temperature than α-β or β alloys. The extra-low-interstitial α alloys (ELI grades) retain ductility and toughness at cryogenic temperatures, and Ti-5Al-2.5Sn-ELI has been used extensively in such applications. Unlike α-β and β alloys, α alloys cannot be significantly strengthened by heat treatment...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 19
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1996
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v19.a0002403
EISBN: 978-1-62708-193-1
... 64 H1050 RT RT 1230 178 1320 192 T-L 112 102 Custom 455 (VAR) H900 RT RT 1760 255 … … L-T 51 46 H950 RT RT 1700 246 … … L-T 79 72 H1000 RT RT 1365 (d) 198 (d) … … L-T 110 100 (a) Heat treatments: 15-5PH and 17-4PH were austenitized at 1040 °C...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02b.a0006611
EISBN: 978-1-62708-210-5
.../BF02646201 Heat Treatment Weldability Corrosion Resistance Applications Annealing temperature is 415 °C (775 °F). Solution treatment for all products consists of heating to 540 ±5 °C (1000 ±10 °F) and quenching in cold water. Time at solution temperature depends on the section thickness...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003115
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... of stainless steel wire that have been developed for specific components or for particular applications. The unique properties of each of these individual wire commodities are developed by employing a particular combination of composition, steel quality, process heat treatment, and cold-drawing practice...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001417
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
... minimize the degradation in the HAZ and typically result in higher weld strength. Postweld heat treatments may be used to recover the loss of strength in the HAZ. Postweld solution heat treating and aging provides the greatest improvement in joint strength; however, this practice requires the use of a cold...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006252
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
... the appropriate solution treatment temperature. (a) Resulting indentation hardness, measured immediately after quenching. (b) Resulting 0.2% proof stress. Tensile properties measured 30 min after quenching. Fig. 5 Surface residual-stress magnitudes produced by quenching 2618A, 7010, and 6082 into cold...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4D
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04d.a0005946
EISBN: 978-1-62708-168-9
... of tool steels, and discusses the procedures and process control requirements for heat treating principal types of tool steels. It reviews the various heat treating processes, namely, normalizing, annealing, stress relieving, austenitizing, quenching, and tempering, and surface treatments and cold...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006270
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
...) Semicommercial alloy; mechanical properties and composition limits subject to negotiation with suppliers. (d) Primarily a tubing alloy; may be cold drawn to increase strength. (e) Combined O 2 + 2N 2 − 0.27% Summary of heat treatments for alpha-beta titanium alloys Table 9 Summary of heat...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04a.a0005813
EISBN: 978-1-62708-165-8
... of the component. Therefore, the level of retained austenite in the hardened case of the components must be controlled, which is why in many cases the components are subjected to a cryogenic treatment after quenching and before tempering. With such a cryogenic treatment at temperatures below −73 °C (−99 °F...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02b.a0006701
EISBN: 978-1-62708-210-5
... to fracture Recommended minimum bend radii for 90° cold forming of 5254 sheet and plate Table 5 Recommended minimum bend radii for 90° cold forming of 5254 sheet and plate Temper Radii for various thicknesses expressed in terms of thickness, t 0.4 mm (1/64 in.) 0.8 mm (1/32 in.) 1.6 mm...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003143
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
...; 0.05 to 0.10 max others (each); 0.30 to 0.40 max others (total); 4.0 to 6.0 Al; 2.0 to 3.0 Sn; bal Ti. Used in the annealed condition primarily for cryogenic applications because of its retention of good toughness and ductility down to cryogenic temperatures (the ELI grade). It is these properties...