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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003989
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
...Abstract Abstract This article describes the presses, transportation equipment, and manufacturing processes associated with cogging. It discusses the practical and metallurgical issues encountered during the conversion of ingot to billet. The article explains the use of numerical modeling...
Book Chapter

By H.W. Sizek
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003984
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
...Abstract Abstract Radial forging is a process performed with four dies arranged in one plane that can act on a piece simultaneously. This article explains the types of radial forgings and describes the advantages and disadvantages of radial forging over open-die cogging/forging. The article...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4D
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04d.a0005951
EISBN: 978-1-62708-168-9
..., such as cogs, camshafts, screws, bolts 20 HG … … 0.20 1.3 1.2 … … Medium-dimension cogs, shafts, and other parts that are subjected to high and variable stresses 18 HGT … … 0.18 1.0 1.2 … … High-stress parts requiring a high durability core: cogs, shafts, etc. Chromium-manganese...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0009013
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... or selected another manufacturing method, both of which likely would have resulted in increased manufacturing costs. Example 2: Cogging of Nickel-Base Superalloy 718 Another example of how a test should be designed to closely fit the thermomechanical process can be seen in how compression tests were...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004037
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... Transverse 72.0 61.0 4.0 Method A, conventional; solid, with flash Longitudinal 82.1 (1.7) (c) 73.4 (2.1) (c) 12.1 (1.8) (c) Long-transverse 75.5 (1.4) 65.7 (1.1) 8.1 (0.8) Short-transverse (d) 75.4 (0.7) 65.7 (0.5) 6.6 (1.4) Method B, cogging, forging; solid, with flash...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22b.a0005531
EISBN: 978-1-62708-197-9
... Gear teeth are one of the most severely stressed sections produced by PM processes. The roots of the teeth should be densified beyond that accomplished by conventional compaction and sintering to enhance their cantilever bend-load capability. Gear rolling and a gear cogging operation can be used...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005459
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... steps. Industrial metalworking processes such as cogging, tandem rolling, and radial forging usually involve multiple deformations. In such instances, the microstructures may not fully recrystallize by the completion of each deformation. For nickel-base superalloys in particular, dealing...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004021
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
.... Although FEM programs were initially developed for metalworking processes, it was soon realized that metalworking is just one of the many operations before the part is finally installed. Prior to forging, the billet is made by primary forming processes, such as cogging or bar rolling from a cast ingot...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003993
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... wrought superalloys such as IN-100 and René 95 (see the section “Powder Alloys” in this article). The soundness and uniformity of forging billets must be ensured, and so ingot solidification and breakdown by cogging are important. In order to impart optimal work during each stage, it may even...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22b.a0005539
EISBN: 978-1-62708-197-9
... is made by primary forming processes, such as cogging or bar rolling from a cast ingot. After forging, the part is heat treated, rough machined, and finish machined. The microstructure of the part continuously evolves together with the shape. The residual stress within the part and the associated...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003971
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... forging (cogging) of ingots, billets, thick plates, and shafts. In contrast to such operations, however, impression dies (not flat or V-shaped tooling) are utilized. The primary applications of the technique are very large plan-area components of high-temperature alloys for which die pressures can easily...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 7
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v07.a0006021
EISBN: 978-1-62708-175-7
... of (at least) two powder feedstocks in dual-gate tooling to obtain a composite green part. Feedstock combinations include magnetic and nonmagnetic metals ( Fig. 4 ), hard and tough metals, and dense-porous materials. Fig. 4 Two-component microMIM part (rotor of a flow meter demonstrator). One cog...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004022
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... routinely provide invaluable insight into bulk-forming processes such as forging, extrusion, rolling, ring rolling, drawing, and cogging, only rarely can it produce an optimal design in the first attempt. A reincarnated legacy design can inherit a mixed bag of pluses and minuses. However, whether the past...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003113
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
.... The overall machinability of a powder forged component may be said to depend on the amount, type, size, shape, and dispersion of inclusions and/or porosity, as well as on the alloy and heat treated structure. Mechanical Properties Wrought steel bar stock undergoes extensive deformation during cogging...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004003
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... 720 billet material that was manufactured using a subsolidus hot isostatic pressing and cog conversion process. Courtesy of Rolls-Royce Corporation Thermomechanical Processing of Nickel-Base Superalloys Retained-Strain Processing Many early solid-solution nickel alloys required cold...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003141
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... breakdown of production ingot is a press cogging operation done in the β temperature range. Modern processes utilize substantial amounts of working below the β transus to produce billets with refined structures. These processes are carried out at temperatures high in the α region to allow greater reduction...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004138
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... anodized-aluminum parts are used. However, many of these components include steel subparts, such as axles, nuts, and bolts. There are also many important components, such as chains, cassette cogs, chainrings, spokes, pedals, and derailleurs in which steel is commonly used due to strength requirements...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003062
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 09 June 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04c.a0005884
EISBN: 978-1-62708-167-2
... localization. Intricate shapes can be forged using isothermal conditions and low press speeds. This type of forging is sometimes called precision forging. Billet material for most forging applications has been subject to some deformation processing (cogging, rolling, or extrusion) to break down the cast...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003978
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
..., porosity, and pipe. Blocking and Upsetting The first step in the forging process usually consists of elongating the ingot along its longitudinal axis. This process has been referred to as blocking, cogging, solid forging, elongation forging, or drawing out. However, some forging ingots—particularly...