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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05b.a0006039
EISBN: 978-1-62708-172-6
...Abstract Abstract Bitumen for coating usage can best be categorized as two fundamental but very different types: asphalts and coal tars. This article provides a detailed discussion on asphalt and coal tar hot-melt applications; asphalt and coal tar emulsions; asphalt and coal tar cutbacks...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004156
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
...Abstract Abstract The presence of certain impurities in coal and oil is responsible for the majority of fireside corrosion experienced in utility boilers. In coal, the primary impurities are sulfur, alkali metals, and chlorine. The most detrimental impurities in fuel oil are vanadium, sodium...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0000615
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... mode, fracture toughness, sulfidation corrosion failure, and interdendritic attack of gas sampling line couplings of coal-gasification pilot plants of these superalloys. couplings fractograph fracture modes fracture toughness iron-base alloys neutron irradiation effect sulfidation...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0000610
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... of these steels. The austenitic stainless steel components include spring wires, preheater-reactor slurry transfer lines and gas lines of coal-liquefaction pilot plants, oil feed tubes and suction couch rolls of paper machines, cortical screws and compression hip screws of orthopedic implants, and Jewett nails...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003048
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
..., and extruded tapes. It also describes classifications and types, comparing and contrasting sealants made from oil-based caulks, asphalts, coal tar resins, latex acrylic sealants, polyvinyl acetate caulks, solvent acrylics, butyl sealants, polysulfides, polyurethanes, modified silicones, anaerobics, vinyl...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003630
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
...Abstract Abstract This article provides a discussion on the mechanisms of wear and their interactions with gaseous corrosion. The wear mechanisms include abrasive, erosive, fretting, and sliding. The measurement of degradation on combustion walls in coal-fired boilers is discussed. The article...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004124
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
...Abstract Abstract High-temperature exposure of materials occurs in many applications such as power plants (coal, oil, natural gas, and nuclear), land-based gas turbine and diesel engines, gas turbine engines for aircraft, marine gas turbine engines for shipboard use, waste incineration, high...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004161
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
...Abstract Abstract Ash handling is a major challenge for utilities and industries using coal as a primary fuel. This article discusses the operating problems associated with conventional fly ash/bottom ash handling systems. It describes the two types of fly ash systems, namely, dry and wet fly...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004150
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
...Abstract Abstract The primary fossil fuels are generally defined as coal, oil, natural gas, tar sands, and shale oil. This article discusses the characteristics and the types of fuels used in fossil and fuel industries. It describes the energy conversion in fuels and outlines the efficiency...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004151
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... been carried out since the early 1970s ( Ref 1 , 2 , 3 ). At present (2005), several commercial- or nearly commercial-scale coal-gasification combined-cycle (CGCC) plants are in operation worldwide. These include plants based on the Texaco and Dow processes in the United States, a plant based...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0004050
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... temperature hot corrosion low temperature hot corrosion thermal spray coatings HIGH-TEMPERATURE PROCESSES are an essential and important part of modern industrial activity. They are found in diverse industries and include propulsion units (turbine and rocket), energy production, coal conversion...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003692
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... the moisture resistance of coal tars. Can embrittle after prolonged exposure to dry environments or temperatures above 150 °C (300 °F), and can soften and flow at temperatures as low as 40 °C (100 °F) Often used as relatively inexpensive coating in atmospheric service, where coal tars cannot be used...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004153
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... into acids in the atmosphere. These emissions can be carried long distances by the prevailing winds and can fall to earth with rain, creating very acidic conditions at ground level. It has long been recognized that coal-burning power plants are the major source of sulfur oxides, and along with vehicles...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003611
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... of oxide/sulfide can be formed from the alloy surface inward, which may act to localize stress or otherwise reduce the load-bearing section. Such attack of an austenitic stainless steel experienced in a coal-gasifier product gas is shown in Fig. 9 . The sulfidation behavior of alloy 800 at temperatures...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05b.a0006038
EISBN: 978-1-62708-172-6
...) 110 (230) Solvent resistance Excellent Impact resistance Good Bendability Good Abrasion resistance Good Cathodic disbondment resistance Excellent Mill application No Field application Yes Characteristics and limitations of coal tar epoxy Table 2 Characteristics...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001816
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... as necessary on an annual basis. Example 4: Creep Failure of a 2.25Cr-1Mo Steel Superheater Tube This example concerns a creep failure taken from a radiant superheater. There have been no reported creep failures in nearly 17 years of service. The boiler is coal fired. Operating drum pressure is 18 MPa...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004108
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... from cargo handling, work parties, and berthing operations, are major causes of damage. Types of Immersion Coatings Many of the common paint formulations can be used for immersion service, but the most common coatings in use have been coal tar epoxies and straight epoxies. Restrictions are being...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006825
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
.... 52 Macrostructure showing a number of pitlike locations on the inner surface of the tube Fig. 54 Schematic illustration of the three layers formed during coal-ash corrosion of a superheater tube Fig. 55 (a) Photograph of water-wall tube sample showing fishmouth-type rupture...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003568
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... the temperature has a mixed effect on the erosion rate for ductile materials ( Ref 69 , 81 ). A substantial amount of high-temperature erosion testing has been done in support of the gas turbine and coal gasification industries. This testing has provided a substantial amount of results on temperature effects...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001726
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
... are defined in Table 9 . The method acronyms are defined in Table 10 . Organic solids: polymers, plastics, epoxies, long-chain hydrocarbons, esters, foams, resins, detergents, dyes, organic composites, coal and coal derivatives, wood products, chemical reagents, organometallics Table 6 Organic...