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cluster dynamics

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005410
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... a nucleating system as a homogeneous phase using the classical nucleation theory, along with heterophase fluctuations that led to the formation of precipitates. It discusses the gas cluster dynamics using the kinetic approach to describe nucleation. The article presents key parameters, such as cluster...
Image
Published: 01 December 2009
Fig. 5 Precipitate density as a function of aging time for an aluminum solid solution containing 0.18 at.% Sc aged at 300 °C. The time evolution obtained from cluster dynamics simulations ( Ref 25 ) allows the definition of a steady-state nucleation rate, J st , and an incubation time, t More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006268
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
... on the application envisaged. In the course of aging, the solid solution decomposes into various phases as the atoms dissolved in the aluminum matrix start diffusing, mediated by excess or equilibrium vacancies. In a first stage, small clusters of solute atoms are formed—most likely by homogeneous nucleation...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004019
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... and abnormal or discontinuous grain growth. It also examines the key mechanisms that control microstructure evolution during hot working and subsequent heat treatment. These include dynamic recovery, dynamic recrystallization, metadynamic recrystallization, static recovery, static recrystallization, and grain...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006771
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
.... However, in select cases where appropriate standards are available (e.g., metals on silicon), accurate quantification can be performed ( Ref 12 ). When depth profiles are required, most TOF-SIMS systems can be operated in a “dynamic” SIMS mode, where a second ion gun (e.g., cesium, O 2 , gas cluster...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005254
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
..., the flask is again subjected to vibration (but this time to undo the compaction), and a robot reaches in and extracts the solidified metal cluster and rotates and positions the cluster so that the sand in internal passageways falls out (or drains out). Then, the robot submerges the hot metal cluster (free...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005432
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... Abstract This article examines how cellular automaton (CA) can be applied to the simulation of static and dynamic recrystallization. It describes the steps involved in the CA simulation of recrystallization. These include defining the CA framework, generating the initial microstructure...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 August 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01a.a0006311
EISBN: 978-1-62708-179-5
... interval of approximately 10 −10 s. It is to be expected that the carbon-rich clusters existing in molten iron-carbon alloys are in dynamic equilibrium and that they diffuse within the melt. Fundamentals of Solidification of Cast Iron Solidification processing is one of the oldest manufacturing...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005933
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... to produce highly thermally conductive nanofluids ( Ref 55 ). Although the presence of an interfacial layer may play a role in heat transport, it is not likely to be solely responsible for the enhancement of thermal conductivity ( Ref 43 ). By using molecular dynamics simulations, Xue et al. demonstrated...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004002
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... the properties of the alloy. Such additions significantly increase the elastic and dynamic moduli, increase strength, reduce ductility and fracture toughness, increase elevated-temperature properties, and do not significantly affect corrosion resistance. Recent summaries of the mechanical properties are provided...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02a.a0006508
EISBN: 978-1-62708-207-5
... before pouring, the foam pattern vaporizes during the pouring of molten metal. Fig. 1 Lost foam pattern for cylinder head. (a) Four different sections of the foam pattern before being glued together. (b) Foam cluster with its gating system and the casting after base cubing Fig. 2 Lost...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 24A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 June 2023
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v24A.a0006992
EISBN: 978-1-62708-439-0
... – 11 ), particularly if process parameters have not been designed specifically for down-facing surfaces. Internal flaws, such as gas porosity, keyhole pores, and lack of fusion, are well known to affect mechanical properties, particularly dynamic properties such as fatigue, fracture toughness...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004171
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... spots are random corrosion. Gray (or green) spots in circle are clustered corrosion. Atmospheric Passivation Module Atmospheric passivation module processing has critical parameters that need to be controlled and monitored closely: water temperature and pressure, wafer chuck spin speed...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02a.9781627082075
EISBN: 978-1-62708-207-5
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01.a0001007
EISBN: 978-1-62708-161-0
... ingress of atmospheric oxygen. As the relatively large lime particles rise through the melt, they cleanse it by collecting the essentially stationary smaller-diameter (∼1 to 10 μm, or 40 to 400 μin.) products of deoxidation. The results of ternary refining are shown in Fig. 8 . The number of clusters...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001287
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
..., but some (for example, antimony, tin, carbon, and selenium) have a significant portion of the vaporized species as clusters of atoms. For materials that evaporate as clusters, special vaporization sources called baffle sources can be used to ensure that the depositing vapor is in the form of atoms...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 24A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 June 2023
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v24A.a0006975
EISBN: 978-1-62708-439-0
...-intensive, dynamic manufacturing approach where a part is built layer by layer. The complexity of AM provides many applications for data analytics and machine learning. Further, the layer-by-layer nature allows for the generation of volumetric data, while the concurrent development of AM and smart...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 24A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 June 2023
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v24A.a0006949
EISBN: 978-1-62708-439-0
... Specification of optimal external and internal geometry via simulation tools (e.g., finite-element analysis and computational fluid dynamics) Iterative optimization of building orientation, building support, and need of postprocessing (e.g., support removal) to minimize building time, material usage...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006644
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... and suitable for imaging single crystals of large cross section with thickness ranging from hundreds of micrometers to several millimeters. Different imperfections are identified through interpretation of contrast using well-established kinematical and dynamical theories of x-ray diffraction. The capability...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001760
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
... Abstract X-ray topography is a technique that comprises topography and x-ray diffraction. This article provides a description of the kinematical theory and the dynamical theory of diffraction. It provides useful information on the configurations of reflection and transmission topography...