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cluster condensation

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005410
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... condensation and evaporation rates, to describe the time evolution of the system. The predictions and extensions of the classical nucleation theory are discussed. The article also provides the limitations of classical nucleation theories in cluster dynamics. nucleation classical nucleation theory...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001287
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... Abstract This article discusses the fundamentals of thermal vaporization and condensation and provides information on the various vaporization sources and methods of vacuum deposition. It offers an overview of reactive evaporation and its deposition techniques. The article also explains...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003784
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... by precipitation and condensation of vacancies during cooling usually are in the form of small loops ( Fig. 6 ). These vacancies can also form other clusters, such as stacking-fault tetrahedra. Fig. 5 Dislocations aligned on traces of slip planes in germanium deformed at low temperature. HNO 3 -acetic-HF...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005255
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... Abstract This article reviews the pattern materials used in investment casting, which can be loosely grouped into waxes and plastics. The patternmaking process, pattern tooling, and pattern and cluster assembly are described. The article also describes the manufacture of ceramic shell molds...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003646
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... and international “humidity” corrosion tests are ASTM D 1735 (humidity-fog type)( Ref 5 ), ASTM D 2247 (100% condensing humidity) ( Ref 6 ), GM 4465 (humidity-fog type), and ASTM G 60 (cyclic humidity) ( Ref 7 ). See Table 1 . Commonly used cabinet corrosion test methods Table 1 Commonly used cabinet...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001286
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... Abstract This article describes eight stages of the atomistic film growth: vaporization of the material, transport of the material to the substrate, condensation and nucleation of the atoms, nuclei growth, interface formation, film growth, changes in structure during the deposition...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003697
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... structure that extends 200 ft from shore is supported by 20 H-piles that are 92 ft long. The H-piles are connected in four-pile clusters by W shapes. The piles are to be driven so that 50 ft will be below the dredged mud line, 30 ft in the submerged zone, 4 ft in the tidal zone, and 8 ft in the atmospheric...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 20
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1997
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v20.a0002452
EISBN: 978-1-62708-194-8
.... The resulting charts are helpful in several ways. They condense a large body of information into a compact but accessible form, they reveal correlations between material properties that aid in checking and estimating data, and they lend themselves to a performance-optimizing technique (developed in the article...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 August 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01a.a0006311
EISBN: 978-1-62708-179-5
... state are condensed phases with compact distribution of atoms in short-range order. X-ray and neutron wide-angle diffraction performed by Steeb and Maier ( Ref 2 ) on molten iron-carbon alloys with up to 5.5 wt% C in the temperature range of 1150 to 1600 °C (2100 to 2910 °F) found that, for pure iron...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006916
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... and fiber clustering at the weld line; (b) Part failure from fiber clustering resulting in weak weld line Fig. 6 Declining physical properties in a part resulting from the successive generation of regrind usage. Source: Ref 7 Fig. 3 The effect of moisture on the tensile, elongation...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02.a0001066
EISBN: 978-1-62708-162-7
..., but they lack the stiffness required. The wider the metal to be rolled, the longer the rolls, and the greater the tendency for the rolls to bend or spring. To overcome the tendency, four-high and cluster rolling mills are used for cold rolling in the brass mill. Four-High Rolling Mills Four-high rolling...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 20
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1997
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v20.a0002425
EISBN: 978-1-62708-194-8
... are listed down the rows and are repeated across the columns. The matrix is filled in with entries ( i,j ), the number of times that need i appears with need j. From this matrix, a statistical hierarchical cluster analysis can be performed, converting the matrix into a tree structure where each need...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006943
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... of polyethylene terephthalate. BE, binding energy Fig. 56 Angular-dependent method for determining compositional gradients with x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Depth analyzed is proportional to sin θ Fig. 58 Ion impact removal of atoms or clusters from solid surfaces. Mass analysis...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 27 April 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v03.a0006223
EISBN: 978-1-62708-163-4
... by the change in H . When dealing with condensed phases (solids or liquids), the term PV is usually very small in comparison to E , and therefore H ≈ E . Finally, the entropy, S , is a measure of the randomness of the system. A system is considered to be in equilibrium when it is in its most stable...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05a.a0005727
EISBN: 978-1-62708-171-9
... are highly active, and therefore, the particles may tend to cluster into agglomerates. The clustering behavior decreases the efficiency of the attrition process. Organic additives such as alcohols are added in amounts of less than 0.1 wt% to reduce agglomeration and thereby improve the grinding efficiency...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004182
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
..., velocity, and aeration or lowering concentration can increase the corrosion rates of steels in HF. Hydrofluoric acid vapors will condense at 38% concentration on surfaces that are at the dewpoint of 111.4 °C (232 °F). The concentration of condensing HF depends on the concentration of liquid HF. When...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003789
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... materials. It may evaporate and then condense on the objective lens of the microscope, resulting in a foggy image. Etchants cause similar problems. Open porosity may trap abrasives and carry them onto subsequent cloths, which should hold only fine abrasives. The result is an increased tendency toward...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003556
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... intergranular pitting of 304L stainless steel condenser tubes in a geothermal electrical power plant operating at >100 °C (> 210 °F) has been reported ( Ref 16 ). In another example, microbiological activity and chloride concentrated under scale deposits were blamed for the wormhole pitting of carbon...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003569
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... speed of the interface is so rapid that residual vapor in the cavity has no time to condense. This cavity is so reduced on forming a very high pressure bubble. When the pressure reaches the maximum level, a compression wave front forms at the interface. This front spreads in the liquid when the bubble...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004105
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... usually experienced ( Ref 9 ) ( Table 6 ). Similarly, the corrosion rate of several copper alloys used in condenser service was 3 to 10 times higher in polluted than in clean seawater ( Ref 9 ) ( Table 7 ), and as little as 4 ppm of hydrogen sulfide seriously increased the corrosion rate of copper alloys...