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closed-pore metal foams

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 7
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v07.a0006093
EISBN: 978-1-62708-175-7
...-pore foams) and foams in which every single pore is completely enclosed by the matrix (closed-pore foams). This article describes the four process groups for the production of open- and closed-pore metal foams. It discusses the principles of the foaminal process with the description of various foaming...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02a.a0006495
EISBN: 978-1-62708-207-5
... 10.1016/j.msea.2009.06.009 • Shapovalov V. , Porous Materials , MRS Bull. , No. 4 , April 1994 , p 24 – 29 There exist four process groups for the production of open- and closed-pore metal foams, which can be assigned to the states of matter from which they start: Liquid...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005351
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... in Aluminum , Aluminum , Vol 56 , 1980 , p 335 8. Gauckler L.J. and Wacher M.M. , Industrial Application of Open Pore Ceramic Foam for Molten Metal Infiltration , Light Metals , The Metallurgical Society , 1985 , p 126 9. Langerweger J. , Nonmetallic Particles...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02a.a0006508
EISBN: 978-1-62708-207-5
... pore will contain more gas molecules for a given volume, thus decreasing the volume fraction of pores with increasing cooling rate. In addition to the lower cooling rate, another factor affecting porosity of lost foam casting is the hotter metal required during pouring. Because the molten metal...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02a.9781627082075
EISBN: 978-1-62708-207-5
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0009015
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... of the mold designer in understanding the very strong influences of the metal alloy and mold material. Even with the best design, solidification on the mold walls closes passage of melt at a certain distance, and this leads to a minimum allowable section thickness. There are large differences in the fluidity...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003020
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... volume fraction of reinforcement. The inherent ability of the resin to flow through tiny pores increases the difficulty of sealing RTM tools. Tools must have additional provisions for sealing beyond standard metal-to-metal seals. Precision-ground metal-to-metal shutoffs may be adequate, but in some cases...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005675
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
... material for forming the porous material. After the desired material is cast into the pores, the CaO is easily removed from the material by dissolving in dilute HCl. Polyurethane foam is applicable to a template for ceramic foam, where it is burned out at higher temperature after a slurry of starting...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02a.a0006535
EISBN: 978-1-62708-207-5
... expulsion of the hydrogen from the liquid to the solid results in porosity, that is, pore formation throughout the microstructure but often concentrated in the last portion of the metal to solidify. For wrought aluminum production, this problem is somewhat lessened, because subsequent hot/cold working...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003373
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... isotropic. Since all CVI processing is a surface deposition rather than a volume deposition process, carbon is deposited layer by layer until the pore is either inaccessible through a closed neck, or it is completely filled. As long as the pores being filled are small in size, this layer-by-layer...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05a.a0005741
EISBN: 978-1-62708-171-9
...: porosity 40 to 70%, pore size 100 to 800 μm. Courtesy of Eurocoating SpA Fig. 3 Plasma-sprayed titanium bond coat and top hydroxyapatite (HA) coating on carbon-fiber-reinforced polyetheretherketone (CF-PEEK) acetabular cup. Courtesy of Elsevier Ltd. Source: Ref 7 Fig. 4 Hydroxyapatite...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 7
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v07.a0006134
EISBN: 978-1-62708-175-7
... 78 – 86 18. “Standard Test Methods for Maximum Pore Diameter and Permeability of Rigid Porous Filters for Laboratory Use,” ASTM E128, American Society for Testing and Materials , 1994 19. “Permeable Sintered Metal Materials–Determination of Bubble Test Pore Size,” ISO Standard 4003...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003413
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... reinforcements, it is worth remembering that this relies on a very approximate description of the impregnation process. The reinforcement structure is generally heterogeneous, which is to say that the pore space is not distributed evenly between the fibers. Large gaps may exist between adjacent yarns, while...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02a.a0006524
EISBN: 978-1-62708-207-5
... presents the advantages and disadvantages of green sand casting, permanent mold casting, semipermanent mold casting, and high-pressure die casting. A discussion on other casting processes, such as investment casting, lost foam, plaster mold casting, pressure casting, centrifugal casting, and semisolid...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.9781627082006
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 20
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1997
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v20.a0002452
EISBN: 978-1-62708-194-8
...—materials made up of cells containing a large fraction of pore space. The moduli of most materials depend on two factors: bond stiffness, and the density of bonds per unit area. An interatomic bond is like a spring: it has a spring constant, S (units: N/m). Young's modulus, E , is roughly (Eq 1) E...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 24
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 June 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v24.a0006557
EISBN: 978-1-62708-290-7
... in a metal compact and pore-removal steps. (1) Pore formation during debinding. (2) Binder diffusion into inner pore/binder interface followed by (3) binder evaporation and (4) gaseous escape to the surface. (5) Nitrogen gas stream sweeps away any gaseous species that surface. Source: Ref 37 Fig. 9...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 20
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1997
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v20.a0002465
EISBN: 978-1-62708-194-8
..., and graphitized. A variation of this second process is to carbon CVD infiltrate the preform after 2 to 4 cycles of resin char processing. The CVD process is continued for 2 to 3 cycles, with machining/cleaning of the outside surfaces after each cycle to open the preform-billet pores and void areas for further...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003776
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... their metallographic preparation. The crystal structure of both ruthenium and osmium is hexagonal close-packed (hcp), whereas the other precious metals have a face-centered cubic (fcc) structure. The hcp structure of ruthenium and osmium makes it possible to use polarized light for metallographic investigations...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003189
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... fluid recycling will have some loss, but 90% recovery is not unusual. Even lower rates of recovery can justify the expense of a closed-loop system. One basic part of a recycling system is some kind of filter to remove metal chips and grinding swarf. Other elements are needed to remove tramp oils...