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closed-loop control

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Published: 31 October 2011
Fig. 4 An example closed-loop control system employs both a setpoint selector model and a steady-state weld process model. The desired bead width, W Ref , and penetration, P Ref , are specified by the user. These parameters, as well as the workpiece thickness, H , are fed to a setpoint More
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Published: 01 January 2006
Fig. 1 Block diagrams of (a) an open-loop control system and (b) a closed-loop or feedback control system More
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Published: 31 October 2011
Fig. 1 Block diagram showing a typical modern closed-loop gun control system. EB, electron beam More
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Published: 30 June 2023
Fig. 4 Closed-loop simulation under the nonlinear inverse-dynamics control of laser power. (a) Simulated build height at representative layers. (b) Laser power trajectory at representative layers. Source: Ref 8 More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06a.a0005610
EISBN: 978-1-62708-174-0
..., and the introduction of closed-loop controls and diagnostic feedback systems in the EB welding systems. It reviews the beam diagnostic tools that interrogate the beam to produce a reconstruction of the power density distribution and provide additional information on the size and shape of the EB. Knowledge...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 8
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v08.a0003314
EISBN: 978-1-62708-176-4
... to accomplish closed loop control of materials testing systems in performing standard materials tests and for the development of custom testing applications. It explores the advanced software tools for materials testing. The article includes a description of baseline isothermal fatigue testing, creep-fatigue...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06a.a0005553
EISBN: 978-1-62708-174-0
... Abstract This article provides an overview of the methods used to control aspects of the arc welding process and research associated with the development of closed-loop feedback control of the process. Successful implementation of a closed-loop feedback control system requires sensing, modeling...
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Published: 01 January 2000
Fig. 25 Closed-loop servo controlled Vickers hardness testing unit More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05a.a0005719
EISBN: 978-1-62708-171-9
... spray controls discussed here include the open-loop input-based, open-loop output-based, closed-loop input-based, and closed-loop output-based or adaptive controls. The article discusses the common causes and practical solutions for arc starting problems. It also outlines certain important developments...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14b.a0005153
EISBN: 978-1-62708-186-3
... and feedback (or closed-loop) control systems. In open-loop control, the controller sends the actuator a predefined control signal that is not based on the output of the plant. The control signal is computed based on the desired output of the plant and models of the plant and actuator. In other words...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 24A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 June 2023
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v24A.a0006968
EISBN: 978-1-62708-439-0
... during the printing process to possibly guide the improvement of printing quality ( Ref 14 ), which is more effective than postprocess inspection in terms of time and cost. Online monitoring has the potential to achieve closed-loop control of AM processes by providing real-time data and controlling...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06a.a0005578
EISBN: 978-1-62708-174-0
... to varying degrees by the coupled effects of the process attributes. Indirect weld parameters are parameters that can be modified in-process as part of an open- or closed-loop control procedure, while the preselected parameters remain fixed during the process, for example, the inertial mass. Finally, other...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 24A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 June 2023
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v24A.a0006994
EISBN: 978-1-62708-439-0
... in powder-bed fusion and directed energy deposition processes. In the latter case, closed-loop feedback is used to control melt pool temperature and cooling rate in order to achieve desired microstructure. closed-loop control data-driven optimization directed energy deposition melt pool temperature...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 20
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1997
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v20.a0009211
EISBN: 978-1-62708-194-8
... focuses on the mechanical properties of AM-processed Ti-6Al-4V, IN-625, and IN-718. The development of closed-loop, real-time, sensing, and control systems is essential to the qualification and advancement of AM. This involves the development of coupled process-microstructural models, sensor technology...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 09 June 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04c.a0005852
EISBN: 978-1-62708-167-2
... for the closed-loop control (feedback to a set point) to assure that the power level requested is the power level delivered. The common modes are closed-loop control at constant voltage, constant power, or constant current. Often, for discrete part heat treating with single-shot or static heating coils...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 24A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 June 2023
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v24A.a0006986
EISBN: 978-1-62708-439-0
...) [ v Q ~ ] = G − 1 ( − F + u ) with (Eq 16) u = [ − τ h ( h − h r ) − τ T ( T − T r ) ] where τ h and τ T are control design parameters that determine the tracking speed of the resulting closed-loop...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 24A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 June 2023
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v24A.a0006978
EISBN: 978-1-62708-439-0
... build stoppage, because restart layers are typically noticeable and can affect material properties. This is also true for DED and other thermally-driven processes, so it is more correct to not provide an example in this case. Closed-Loop Feedback Control One of the ultimate goals of in situ...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 09 June 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04c.a0005851
EISBN: 978-1-62708-167-2
... water. Fig. 1 (a) Water recirculating system for cooling an induction power supply including stainless steel pump, copper pipe, cartridge filter, nonferrous plate-type heat exchanger, and temperature control to prevent condensation. (b) Schematic of closed-loop water cooling system...
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Published: 09 June 2014
Fig. 1 (a) Water recirculating system for cooling an induction power supply including stainless steel pump, copper pipe, cartridge filter, nonferrous plate-type heat exchanger, and temperature control to prevent condensation. (b) Schematic of closed-loop water cooling system in (a) More
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Published: 30 June 2023
Fig. 8 Closed-loop simulation for a five-track scanning with v = 800 mm/s (32 in./s) and L = 10 mm (0.4 in.), where a constant laser power of 250 W was applied to the first track (distance 0 to 10 mm, or 0 to 0.4 in.), and a model-based control for laser power was applied to tracks 2 to 5 More