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closed-die steel forgings

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Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003097
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... Abstract Forging is the process of working hot metal between dies, usually under successive blows and sometimes by continuous squeezing. This article describes the material selection criteria, quality assurance tests for forged components, and the dimensional tolerances of closed-die steel...
Image
Published: 01 January 2005
Fig. 20 Flow lines in a closed-die forging of AISI 4340 alloy steel. Hot 50% HCl. Original magnification approximately 0.75× More
Image
Published: 01 December 1998
Fig. 4 Flow lines in a closed-die forging of AISI 4340 alloy steel. ∼0.75× More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003979
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
.... It explains the use of heating equipment for closed-die forging and tabulates the maximum safe forging temperatures for carbon and alloy steels. The article concludes with a discussion on a trimming method used for closed-die forgings. alloy steel blocker-type forgings carbon steel closed-die forging...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01.a0001032
EISBN: 978-1-62708-161-0
... processing of high-strength low-alloy (microalloyed) steels and the various parts of the rolling operation. The article summarizes some of the common tests for determining formability in open-die and closed-die forgings. bulk formability forgeability microalloyed steels rolling operation...
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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003987
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... forging coining composite metals copper dimensional control hammers lubricants steels surface finish COINING is a closed-die forging operation, usually performed cold, in which all surfaces of the workpiece are confined or restrained, resulting in a well-defined imprint of the die...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003183
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
...-restricted machines. Some of these machines can be used for many forging processes, such as open-die forging and impression-die (or closed-die) forging. Others are restricted to specific processes. Hammers Forging processes using hammers are the most versatile and the least expensive of all...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02a.a0006493
EISBN: 978-1-62708-207-5
... Abstract This article examines aluminum forging processes, including open-die, closed-die, upset, roll, orbital, spin, and mandrel forging, and compares and contrasts their capabilities and the associated design requirements for forged parts. It discusses the effect of key process variables...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003996
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... for die preheating and maintaining die temperatures during forging must be considered in the design. Die Materials The die materials used in closed-die forging of aluminum alloys are identical to those employed in forging steel alloys except that, because of the higher forces applied in aluminum...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003992
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
...; the most difficult alloys to forge are those with the greatest strength at elevated temperatures. Forging Methods Open-die, closed-die, upset, and roll forging and ring rolling are among the methods used to forge stainless steel. As in the forging of other metals, two of these methods are sometimes...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004035
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
.... 3 Tolerances for (a) coining flat steel surfaces, and (b), perspective and side views of a close-tolerance forging with coined tongue. Dimensions given in inches. Summary of Tolerances for Closed-Die Forgings The forged section shown in Fig. 4 summarizes the tolerances that are applied...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003997
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... from steel, that is, fullering, blocking, and finishing, as required (see the article “Closed-Die Forging in Hammers and Presses” in this Volume). Fig. 1 Examples of copper alloy closed-die forgings. Courtesy of Mueller Brass Company For simpler shapes produced by one or two blows...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003981
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
..., and upset forging (see the articles “Closed-Die Forging in Hammers and Presses” and “Hot Upset Forging” in this Volume). However, because roll dies are subjected to less impact than dies in other types of forging, they can be made of die steels that are somewhat higher in carbon content—which is helpful...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003975
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... of their short life. Replaceable inserts can be used for areas of gripper dies subject to short life and for parts that require close tolerances. Die Materials <xref rid="a0003975-ref1" ref-type="bibr">(Ref 1)</xref> Hot-Work Die Steels Hot-work die steels are commonly used for hot-forging dies...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004000
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
...-alloy steel forgings, titanium alloy closed-die forgings are produced to similar or more refined forging designs and tolerances because of the reduced oxidation and scaling tendencies in heating titanium. Because of the high cost of titanium alloys in comparison to other commonly forged materials...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004036
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... dies FLASH is metal forced outward from the workpiece while it is being forged to the configuration of the closed-die impression; it is metal in excess of that required to fill the impression. In hammer and press forging, flash is received by, and contained in, a troughlike depression surrounding...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004034
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
.... The same terms apply to the corresponding contours of the forging die impressions. Fig. 1 Types of draft, as illustrated on the surfaces of a closed-die forging Outside Draft Outside draft is draft applied to the outer side (or sides) of vertical elements of a forging; thus, it pertains...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003991
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... Standard Specification for Steel, Closed-Impression Die Forgings for General Industrial Use Other standards cover requirements for specific types of product applications/forms (e.g., fittings, valves, gears, rotors) or service conditions (e.g., notch toughness at low temperature). Reference 6...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003184
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
..., such as 19-9 DL and A-286, are similar to austenitic stainless steels in forgeability. Most heat-resisting alloys, however, are more difficult to forge than stainless steels, although they can be forged by open-die or closed-die forging, upsetting, extrusion forging, roll forging, ring rolling, isothermal...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003998
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... are similar to those typical of aluminum forgings and lower than those for steel forgings. Forging Processes Magnesium alloys are forged predominantly by open-die and closed-die forging processes, although other forging methods, such as precision forging techniques used in aluminum forging can...