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closed-die steel forgings

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Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003097
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... in the die to avoid counterlocked dies and to eliminate draft Fig. 4 Flow lines in a closed-die forging of AISI 4340 alloy steel. ∼0.75× Fig. 2 Cost of steel as a percentage of total cost of forgings Fig. 11 Extent of die wear in a die block hardened to 42 HRC. The block...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003979
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
.... 7 Metal flow (a) to (c) and load-stroke curve (d) in closed-die forging. (a) Upsetting. (b) Filling. (c) End Fig. 9 Variations in flash land-width-to-thickness ratio (top) and in flash thickness (bottom) with forging weight for carbon and alloy steel forgings in shape group 224 (see Fig...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01.a0001032
EISBN: 978-1-62708-161-0
... (microalloyed) steels and the various parts of the rolling operation. The article summarizes some of the common tests for determining formability in open-die and closed-die forgings. References References 1. Sabroff A.M. , Boulger F.W. , and Henning H.J. , Forging Materials...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003987
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
.... closed-die forging coining composite metals copper dimensional control hammers lubricants steels surface finish ...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02a.a0006493
EISBN: 978-1-62708-207-5
...Abstract Abstract This article examines aluminum forging processes, including open-die, closed-die, upset, roll, orbital, spin, and mandrel forging, and compares and contrasts their capabilities and the associated design requirements for forged parts. It discusses the effect of key process...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003183
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
...-restricted machines. Some of these machines can be used for many forging processes, such as open-die forging and impression-die (or closed-die) forging. Others are restricted to specific processes. Hammers Forging processes using hammers are the most versatile and the least expensive of all...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003996
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... are usually made of ASM 6G and 6F2 grade die steels at a hardness of 42 to 46 HRC. This same hardness range applies to 6G and 6F2 dies when used for mechanical and screw presses. Grades 6G or 6F2, or proprietary variants of these steels, are the most widely used die materials in all closed-die forging...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003992
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... , Forging Industry Association , 1997 Open-Die Forging Closed-Die Forging Upset Forging Roll Forging Ring Rolling Forging Methods Ingot Breakdown Forgeability Austenitic Stainless Steels Martensitic Stainless Steels Ferritic Stainless Steels Precipitation-Hardening...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003988
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
....1983.26.3.137 69. Hanejko F.G. , Mechanical Property Anisotropy of P/M Hot Formed Materials , Mod. Dev. Powder Metall. , Vol 10 , 1977 , p 73 70. Closed-Die Steel Forgings , Properties and Selection: Irons and Steels , Vol 1 , 9th ed. , Metals Handbook , American Society for Metals...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003997
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... at forging temperatures. 1, military brass; 2, zincified brass (C99400, C99500); 3, forging brass (C37700). Source: Ref 1 , p 225 Fig. 1 Examples of copper alloy closed-die forgings. Courtesy of Mueller Brass Company Abstract Abstract This article focuses on forging processes...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004035
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... in the other die half in a direction parallel to the parting line. (b) Tolerances for forgings weighing less than 2 lb are customarily negotiated with the purchaser Fig. 3 Tolerances for (a) coining flat steel surfaces, and (b), perspective and side views of a close-tolerance forging with coined...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004000
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... alloys Forging process/equipment Die temperature °C °F Open-die forging Ring rolling 150–260 300–500 95–260 200–500 Closed-die forging Hammers 95–260 200–500 Upsetters 150–260 300–500 Mechanical presses 150–315 300–600 Screw presses 150–315 300–600...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003975
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
...Composition of tool and die materials for hot forging Table 1 Composition of tool and die materials for hot forging Designation Nominal composition, % C Mn Si Co Cr Mo Ni V W Chromium-base AISI hot-work tool steels H10 0.40 0.40 1.00 … 3.30 2.50 … 0.50...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004034
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... on the surfaces of a closed-die forging Fig. 4 Forging for a nozzle boss fitting used in a rocket engine. As shown, draft angles are measured from the direction of the ram, which in this instance is vertical. Dimensions given in inches. Fig. 5 Wing spar forging with a broken parting line...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003991
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... 44.2 35.5 62 193 28.0 144 0.30 552 80.0 301 43.7 27.0 52 224 32.5 157 0.35 669 97.0 414 60.0 26.5 49 247 35.8 190 0.45 724 105.0 386 56.0 19.0 31 277 40.2 206 (a) Rotating beam test at 10 7 endurance limit. Source: Ref 31 Die steels for forging...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003981
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... movement of the workpiece to the next impression in a multiple-impression roll die. Consequently, these dies require control of rolling motion by a clutch and a brake. Steels used for roll dies do not differ greatly from those used for dies in hammer, press, and upset forging (see the articles “Closed...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004036
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... when die interfaces do not close perfectly because of rounded corners or edges, or when interfaces are forced apart by elastic deflection. After completion of forging, the flash is removed by any of several methods. The flash removal process is referred to as flash trim, or simply, flash removal...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003184
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... 95–205 200–400 Mandrel forging 95–205 200–400 Closed-die forging Hammers 95–150 200–300 Upsetters 150–260 300–500 Mechanical presses 150–260 300–500 Screw presses 150–260 300–500 Orbital (rotary) forging 150–260 300–500 Roll forging 95–205 200–400 Hydraulic...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01.a0001021
EISBN: 978-1-62708-161-0
... tolerances for steel forgings Forging size Tolerance Area Weight Thickness (a) Mismatch (a) Die wear 10 3 mm 2 in. 2 kg lb mm in. mm in. mm in. 3.2 5.0 0.45 1 +0.79, −0.41 +0.031, −0.016 +0.41 to +0.79 +0.016 to +0.031 +0.79 +0.031 4.5 7.0 3.2 7 +1.57, −0.79...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003998
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... Texture and Twinning Practical Workability Machines Dies Open-Die Forging Closed-Die Forging Heating for Forging Grain Size Control Die Heating Lubrication Forging pressures for the upsetting of magnesium alloy billets between flat dies are shown in Fig. 4 At normal press...