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closed-die forgings

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01.a0001021
EISBN: 978-1-62708-161-0
... Abstract Forgings are classified in various ways, beginning with the general classifications open die and closed die. They are also classified according to how they are made; such as hammer upset forgings, ring-rolled forgings, and multiple-ram press forgings; and in terms of the close-to...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003979
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... Abstract This article provides an overview of the capabilities of closed-die forging. One of the most important aspects of closed-die forging is proper design of preforming operations and of blocker dies to achieve adequate metal distribution. The article describes the effects of friction and...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003097
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... Abstract Forging is the process of working hot metal between dies, usually under successive blows and sometimes by continuous squeezing. This article describes the material selection criteria, quality assurance tests for forged components, and the dimensional tolerances of closed-die steel...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0009005
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... for each dimension indicates finish forging (F) or preform (P). Source: Ref 1 Fig. 31 Typical deformation sequence in closed-die forging of a rib-web part, showing how laps can be generated if preform geometry is selected improperly. Source: Ref 2 Fig. 32 Lap formation in the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004033
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... and fillets. Dimensions given in inches Fig. 1 Sections of ribs with (a) a flat top and (b) a full-rounded top that serve to define corners and fillets Abstract Corners and fillets are curved connecting surfaces on closed-die forgings that unite smoothly the converging or...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004035
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... closed-die forgings, including finish allowances for machining, length and width tolerances, die-wear tolerance, match tolerances, die-closure or thickness tolerances, straightness and flatness tolerances, radii tolerances, flash-extension tolerances, and surface tolerances. It also contains a convenient...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003986
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... Abstract Precision forging is defined as a closed-die forging process in which the accuracy of the shape, dimensional tolerances, and surface finish exceed normal expectations to the extent that some of the postforge operations can be eliminated. This article provides an overview of the key...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003987
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... Abstract Coining is a closed-die forging operation in which all surfaces of the workpiece are confined or restrained, resulting in a well-defined imprint of the die on the workpiece. This article focuses on the coining equipment (hammers and presses), lubricants, and general and special die...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01.a0001032
EISBN: 978-1-62708-161-0
... thermomechanical processing of high-strength low-alloy (microalloyed) steels and the various parts of the rolling operation. The article summarizes some of the common tests for determining formability in open-die and closed-die forgings. bulk formability forgeability microalloyed steels rolling operation...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02a.a0006493
EISBN: 978-1-62708-207-5
... illustrates the relative forgeability of ten aluminum alloys that constitute the majority of aluminum alloy forging production. The article explains the various types of forgings, including open-die, closed-die, upset, roll, orbital, spin, and mandrel forging. It describes forging equipment, including hammers...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01.a0001018
EISBN: 978-1-62708-161-0
... medium-carbon and even low-alloy steels can be successfully impact extruded. Parts having heads that are large in relation to the shank diameter can be hot headed or produced cold on a two-die, three-blow machine. Hot heading is also more practical for bolts with diameters larger than about 32 mm (1...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003183
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... these machines can be used for many forging processes, such as open-die forging and impression-die (or closed-die) forging. Others are restricted to specific processes. Forging processes using hammers are the most versatile and the least expensive of all forging processes. Hammers are used...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003985
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... and strain rate on flow stress for Ti-6Al-4V Fig. 4 Effect of temperature and strain rate on flow stress for René 95 The isothermal forging and hot-die forging processes overcome some of these limitations by increasing the die temperature so that it is close to the temperature of the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004000
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... class of materials, titanium alloys are among the most difficult metal alloys to forge, ranking behind only refractory metals and nickel/cobalt-base superalloys. Therefore, titanium alloy forgings, particularly closed-die forgings, are typically produced to less highly refined final forging...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 18
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v18.a0006370
EISBN: 978-1-62708-192-4
... manufacturing processes. The article concludes with information on the main categories of tool and die materials used for a variety of manufacturing application. friction dry forming metal forming cold working hot working surface flattening lubricant film thickness isothermal forging heat transfer...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004032
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... Table 1 Lubricant systems for steel cold forging Process Deformation Lubrication Upsetting Light None Mi+EP+FA Severe Ph+SP Ironing and open-die extrusion Light Ph+Mi+EP+FA Severe Ph+SP Extrusion Light Ph+Mi+EP+FA Severe Ph+SP Ph+MoS 2 Ph+MoS 2 +SP Mi...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003992
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... difficult alloys to forge are those with the greatest strength at elevated temperatures. Open-die, closed-die, upset, and roll forging and ring rolling are among the methods used to forge stainless steel. As in the forging of other metals, two of these methods are...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003996
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... and a strain rate of 10 s −1 Fig. 5 Types of aluminum closed-die forgings and tolerances for each. (a) Blocker-type. (b) Conventional. (c) High-definition. (d) Precision Characteristic Tolerance, mm (in.) Blocker-type Conventional High-definition Precision Die closure...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003997
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... (C99400, C99500); 3, forging brass (C37700). Source: Ref 1 , p 225 Fig. 1 Examples of copper alloy closed-die forgings. Courtesy of Mueller Brass Company Abstract This article focuses on forging processes and equipment, types of forging alloys, and the forging practices associated with...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003978
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... continuous flow. Forgings are made by this process when: The forging is too large to be produced in closed dies. The required mechanical properties of the worked metal that can be developed by open-die forging cannot be obtained by other deformation processes. The quantity required is too small to...