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closed-die forging

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003979
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
...Abstract Abstract This article provides an overview of the capabilities of closed-die forging. One of the most important aspects of closed-die forging is proper design of preforming operations and of blocker dies to achieve adequate metal distribution. The article describes the effects...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01.a0001021
EISBN: 978-1-62708-161-0
...-type, conventional, and precision forgings Abstract Abstract Forgings are classified in various ways, beginning with the general classifications open die and closed die. They are also classified according to how they are made; such as hammer upset forgings, ring-rolled forgings, and multiple...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003097
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
...Abstract Abstract Forging is the process of working hot metal between dies, usually under successive blows and sometimes by continuous squeezing. This article describes the material selection criteria, quality assurance tests for forged components, and the dimensional tolerances of closed-die...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0009005
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... and secondary tensile stresses on forgeability, and flow-localization-controlled failure are some common tests. The workability test used for closed-die forging is also summarized. closed-die forging cold open-die die geometry hot open-die forging microstructure open-die forging tensile stress...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004033
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
...Abstract Abstract Corners and fillets are curved connecting surfaces on closed-die forgings that unite smoothly the converging or intersecting sides of forged elements, such as ribs, bosses, and webs. This article discusses the effects of several variables, including rib height, type of forging...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004035
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... tolerances for closed-die forgings, including finish allowances for machining, length and width tolerances, die-wear tolerance, match tolerances, die-closure or thickness tolerances, straightness and flatness tolerances, radii tolerances, flash-extension tolerances, and surface tolerances. It also contains...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003987
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
...Abstract Abstract Coining is a closed-die forging operation in which all surfaces of the workpiece are confined or restrained, resulting in a well-defined imprint of the die on the workpiece. This article focuses on the coining equipment (hammers and presses), lubricants, and general...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003986
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
...Abstract Abstract Precision forging is defined as a closed-die forging process in which the accuracy of the shape, dimensional tolerances, and surface finish exceed normal expectations to the extent that some of the postforge operations can be eliminated. This article provides an overview...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01.a0001032
EISBN: 978-1-62708-161-0
... (microalloyed) steels and the various parts of the rolling operation. The article summarizes some of the common tests for determining formability in open-die and closed-die forgings. References References 1. Sabroff A.M. , Boulger F.W. , and Henning H.J. , Forging Materials...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02a.a0006493
EISBN: 978-1-62708-207-5
...Abstract Abstract This article examines aluminum forging processes, including open-die, closed-die, upset, roll, orbital, spin, and mandrel forging, and compares and contrasts their capabilities and the associated design requirements for forged parts. It discusses the effect of key process...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003996
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... inspection lubrication preheating stock trimming ALUMINUM ALLOYS are forged into a variety of shapes and types of forgings with a broad range of final part forging design criteria based on the intended application. Aluminum alloy forgings, particularly closed-die forgings, are usually produced...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004000
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
.... As a class of materials, titanium alloys are among the most difficult metal alloys to forge, ranking behind only refractory metals and nickel/cobalt-base superalloys. Therefore, titanium alloy forgings, particularly closed-die forgings, are typically produced to less highly refined final forging...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003183
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
...-restricted machines. Some of these machines can be used for many forging processes, such as open-die forging and impression-die (or closed-die) forging. Others are restricted to specific processes. Hammers Forging processes using hammers are the most versatile and the least expensive of all...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003981
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... forged in a press. Fig. 1 Preforming by roll forging (steps shown in dark shade) of a control arm for subsequent (steps shown in light shade) closed-die forging and trimming operations Any metal that can be forged by other methods can be roll forged. Heating times and temperatures...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003998
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... commonly forged using homogenized and hot extruded billets. Forging Equipment Machines Hydraulic presses or slow-action mechanical presses are the most commonly used machines for the open-die and closed-die forging of magnesium alloys. As mentioned previously, the flow behavior (e.g., resistance...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 18
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v18.a0006370
EISBN: 978-1-62708-192-4
... in manufacturing processes. The article concludes with information on the main categories of tool and die materials used for a variety of manufacturing application. friction dry forming metal forming cold working hot working surface flattening lubricant film thickness isothermal forging heat transfer...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003999
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... of precipitation. Precipitation can also retard recrystallization or can be utilized to control grain growth. Applications Nickel-base alloys are often closed-die forged into turbine blades, turbine disks, exhaust valves, chain hooks, heat-exchanger headers, valve bodies, and pump bodies. Large, limited...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003997
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... more expensive than sand castings, their cost can be justified in light of their soundness and generally better properties. An overview of forging tolerances is given in Table 1 . Tolerances in closed-die forgings can be as close as ┬▒0.25 mm (┬▒0.01 in.), sometimes closer, for small- to medium...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004040
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... piercing press forging CAVITIES are pockets, recesses, or indentations of regular or irregular contour that are impressed into a portion of a closed-die forging and that, except for the opening, are confined or enclosed by other forged elements. Normally, cavities are forged parallel to the direction...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003992
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... and compositions; the most difficult alloys to forge are those with the greatest strength at elevated temperatures. Forging Methods Open-die, closed-die, upset, and roll forging and ring rolling are among the methods used to forge stainless steel. As in the forging of other metals, two of these methods...