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cleaning specimen

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0001832
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... stripping, organic-solvent cleaning, water-base detergent cleaning, cathodic cleaning, and chemical-etch cleaning. cleaning cracks fractography nondestructive inspection specimen preparation specimen preservation specimen sectioning steel fracture FRACTURE SURFACES are fragile and subject...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006648
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... by a discussion on the various components of a GDMS system as well as commercial GDMS instruments. A description of processes involved in specimen preparation and cleaning in GDMS is then presented. Various problems pertinent to multielemental calibrations in GDMS are discussed along with measures to...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003243
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... Abstract Stress-corrosion cracking (SCC) occurs under service conditions, which can result, often without any prior warning, in catastrophic failure. Hydrogen embrittlement is distinguished from stress-corrosion cracking generally by the interactions of the specimens with applied currents. To...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001308
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... specimens failed in 1, 5, 17, and 28 days. Specimens peened in the unstressed condition with cast steel shot lasted 365 and 730 days, when failure occurred in the unpeened grip outside the test area. During exposure to an industrial atmosphere, similar unpeened test bars failed in 20, 37, 120, and 161 days...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001313
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
..., dry gloves until they are welded. Acid Cleaning Procedure Solution: 95.0 parts H 2 SO 4 , 4.5 parts HNO 3 , 0.05 parts HF, and 18.8 g/L (2.5 oz/gal) Cr 2 O 3 . Temperature 60 °C (140 °F). Immerse specimens for 30 s. Rinse with hot water. Electropolishing Procedures for Cleaning...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001303
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... Abstract This article provides a brief review of the classification and characteristics of cast irons. It describes the processes used to clean iron castings, including mechanical cleaning and finishing and nonmechanical cleaning. The article discusses surface treatments used to extend casting...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0001835
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... disastrous. The least aggressive method of preparation should be selected for any fracture specimen. The major criteria for SEM specimen preparation are that the specimen be conductive, clean, and small enough to enter the specimen chamber. If the specimen is too large, replicas composed of cellulose...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003244
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... coated surfaces to permit examination at high magnifications. Specimens are cleaned adequately between preparation steps, after preparation, and after etching. Preparation of metallographic specimens generally requires five major operations: sectioning, mounting (optional), grinding, polishing...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003044
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... dimensions of the specimen while cleaning the surface. Following manufacturers' recommendations for strain gage installation, personnel have used gages and adhesives successfully over a wide range of temperatures. The strain gages should be large enough to measure average properties. Gages with a 6.4 mm...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006757
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... processes involved in the selection of metallurgical samples, the preparation and examination of metallographic specimens in failure analysis, and the analysis and interpretation of microstructures. Examination and evaluation of polymers and ceramic materials in failure analysis are also briefly discussed...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006639
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... removed to analyze the material underneath. Ion guns are employed for this purpose. Ion guns are mounted at an angle to the sample surface, and therefore, nonuniform cleaning occurs on an uneven surface. A flat surface or sample rotation is required to avoid this. The specimen should be placed flat...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003226
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... photography of fractured parts and surfaces, and describes some of the more common fractographic features revealed by light microscopy, including tensile-fracture surface marks in unnotched specimens, fatigue marks, and structural discontinuities within the metal. The article also explains how to interpret...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006661
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... rectangular pieces ground to a thickness between 0.240 and 0.260 mm (0.0095 and 0.01 in.) and polished to a surface roughness of approximately 1 μm. The specimens were rinsed in a detergent, washed in water, ultrasonically cleaned in acetone, dried using high-pressure air, washed in ethanol, and dried under...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003247
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... depth of the disturbed layer. Dry and clean with concentrated nitric acid if required. Microethcing of lead-antimony alloys containing up to 2% antimony 10 parts hydrogen peroxide (30%) 3 3 parts acetic acid (glacial) Etch by immersing specimen in solution for 6–15 s. Dry with alcohol...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003105
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
...) ASTM A 588 (grade A). (d) ASTM A 514 (type B) and A 517 (grade B). (e) ASTM A 514 (type F) and A 517 (grade F). (f) Specimen corroded completely away. SOIL CORROSION may be considered to encompass all corrosion taking place on buried structures. Soil corrosion has been ascribed to...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003245
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... these openings and must be removed, or they may impair examination—especially when an inverted microscope is used. Ultrasonic cleaning followed by careful drying (a heat lamp or an oven may help) may suffice if the holes are not filled. Nital is the etchant most often used for specimens from steel...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001273
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... specimens were cylinders 38 mm (1.5 in.) long, 13 mm (0.5 in.) in diameter, machined from chill castings 50 mm (2 in.) long, 19 mm (0.75 in.) in diameter. (b) Values were taken from stress-strain curves at a deformation of 0.125% reduction of gage length. (c) Values were taken as the unit load...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006672
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... Abstract Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) is the most common thermal technique for polymer characterization. This article provides a detailed account of the various factors and processes involved in DSC. The discussion covers the equipment used, specimen preparation process, calibration...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006673
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... gas and flow rate, type of specimen pan, and heating rates ( Ref 4 ). Prior to calibration, the TGA pan should be cleaned, using a flame torch to burn off organic residue on platinum or alumina pans, if necessary. The purge gas flow-rate setting should be set (flow rates differ depending on furnace...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001307
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... contamination, the soaking time can vary from 20 min to 4 h, as determined by visual observation of the reaction. After this treatment, parts must be rinsed thoroughly in water and dried. When possible, a test specimen should be immersed for the maximum time anticipated and then examined for chemical attack...