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clamp force

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0009011
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... through forced-air or argon convection around the specimen at rates that must be determined experimentally to obtain the desired results. Strain-rate histories are more readily controlled by interfacing closedloop test systems with computers or function generators that provide the proper control signals...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003043
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... Load distribution When clearance fit holes are used, high clamp-up appears to be beneficial for joint strength and fatigue life. The clamping forces, however, must be spread out over a sufficient area so that the compressive strength of the resin system is not exceeded and the composite crushed...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003018
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... are heated, softened, clamped onto a mold, and made to conform to the shape of the mold, or forming tool. Because thermoplastic materials soften when heated and reharden when cooled, thermoforming produces a three-dimensional shape in the form of the mold. A variety of forces, such as vacuum...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003014
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... desirable extension of injection molding, based on the concept that large parts could be produced on molding equipment having a relatively low clamping force if pressure on the mold surfaces could be kept low. The mold cavity pressure developed during the structural-foam process is indeed low...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005257
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... control panels Bushings Hub, clamps, and screws Triggers, firing mechanisms, and cartridges Medals, pins, figurines, key chains, name plates, and costume jewelry Door hardware, locks, hooks, and rings Handles Belt buckles, buttons, and watch cases Gears, motor housings, and pump...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005268
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... Casting” and “Die Casting Tooling” in this Volume. The functions of the clamp end of the machine include opening and closing the die, developing clamping force, and providing power for sliding cores and for ejecting the casting from the die cavity. The machine must open and close the die on a...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003207
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... upsetting action. Flash welding equipment must be durable to withstand high clamping force and upset pressures without deflecting. If deflection occurs, misalignment of workpieces may occur during welding. Flash welding is rapid and economical, and when properly executed, welds of uniform high quality are...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005259
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... fluid metal while spinning. All clamping arrangements should be designed to tighten with, or to be unaffected by, centrifugal force. Molds should be firmly clamped to the table, because unbalanced molds may fly off the table during operation. Adequate safety guards with interlocks should be used around...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006676
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... as a guide for the force from the motor to the sample, and sample clamps in order to hold the sample being tested. Fig. 1 Generic setup of a dynamic mechanical analyzer The sample is subjected to a periodic (sinusoidal) mechanical stress, which causes it to undergo deformation with the...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003038
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... physical separation of 3 m (10 ft) or more between the die exit and the pulling device is provided in order to allow the hot, pultruded product to cool in the atmosphere or in a forced-water or air-cooling stream. This allows the product to develop adequate strength to resist the clamping forces required...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005680
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
... coordinated application of electric current and mechanical force of proper magnitude and duration. An alternating or direct current is then supplied at low voltage for the generation of resistive heat. Fig. 2 Schematic of the microresistance spot welding process for crossed-wire geometry. (a) Clamping...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005258
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... modified for this purpose ( Fig. 7 ). A variable-speed centrifugal casting (spinning) machine is fitted with a safe means for supporting and rotating a reasonably well-balanced workpiece clamped between recessed sealing plates. With the shell rotating, molten Babbitt is fed to the inside of the prepared...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0009025
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... compromise in design or processing, so that a usable part is obtained. With the mounting clamp shown in Fig. 15 , an aluminum (alloy 356) sand casting, a revision of the choice of heat treatment was required, in order to curtail the distortion that had occurred as a result of the first-selected process and...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003232
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... site. Mobile equipment usually supplies full-wave, half-wave, and alternating magnetizing-current outputs. Part inspection is accomplished by use of flexible cables, yokes, prod contacts, contact clamps, and coils. Instruments and controls are mounted on the front of the unit. Magnetizing current...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003178
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... 1 mm (0.02 to 0.04 in.) in diameter. BARS are bent by four basic methods: draw bending, compression bending, roll bending, and stretch bending. In draw bending, the workpiece is clamped to a rotating form and drawn by the form against a pressure die ( Fig. 7 ). The pressure die can be either...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003980
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... illustrates the basic mechanism for electric upsetting. Fig. 21 Electric upsetting operation. (a) The bar, A, is inserted, and clamping jaws, D, are closed. Upsetting cylinder, C, forces the bar against the anvil, B. Electric resistance heats bar section (A). (b) The distance A increases, and the bar...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005355
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... energy to clean casting Operator required to hold air tool Creation of silica dust, which affects operator Insufficient speed for high production The vertical core knockout machine ( Fig. 2 ) involves the use of a specially made air tool that strokes down to clamp the casting for holding...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001241
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... as ferrous alloys are readily clamped by electromagnetic chucks during their finishing, whereas paramagnetic and nonmagnetic materials require mechanical clamping. As a general rule, a uniform and predictable microstructure of the work material is preferable for reliable finishing processes and...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003973
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... linear motion to move the ram (see “Drive Mechanisms” in this article). The ram carries the top, or moving, die, while the bottom, or stationary, die is clamped to the die seat of the main frame. The ram stroke is shorter than that of a forging hammer or a hydraulic press. Ram speed is greatest at the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05b.a0006026
EISBN: 978-1-62708-172-6
... surfaces of the equipment or tank/vessel, which may accelerate permeation of the lining by a corrosive medium. The lining system is applied to specially fabricated test panels. After curing, the test panels are clamped to sides of the glass test cell (containing suitable gaskets), with the linings facing...