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circumferential cracks

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0000608
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
...-access caps 2 and 4 were removed from hot engines after run-in. Fig. 361 : A reduced shank bearing cap bolt. Location of cracks and fracture on bolt shank was random. In this case, circumferential cracks were found adjacent to the threaded section. 1.5×. Fig. 362 : Fracture surface of a failed bolt...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006785
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... Abstract Stress-corrosion cracking (SCC) is a form of corrosion and produces wastage in that the stress-corrosion cracks penetrate the cross-sectional thickness of a component over time and deteriorate its mechanical strength. Although there are factors common among the different forms of...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0000610
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... circumferential cracks at A and B. Fig. 636 , 637 , and 638 : Microstructure of fifth convolute cross section, showing twins, transgranular and intergranular fracture modes, and secondary cracking. Oxalic acid electrolytic etch, 10×, 50×, and 200×, respectively (R.J. Schwinghamer, NASA Marshall Space Flight...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003058
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... of the ratio of the crack length to void radius, for voids accompanied by circumferential cracks. For short cracks, the stress-intensity factor due to the void is markedly higher. This is due to the presence of the void surface, which allows a larger crack opening that will increase K I . This...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0000621
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... the hub. Figure 971 shows a fracture surface of the broken hub, showing the fatigue-crack origin. Clearly visible are beach marks, which indicate that the fracture began as a radial fatigue crack in a plane containing the axis of the wheel. Later, the crack turned to form a circumferential...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006786
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... intergranular through very coarse-grained regions of the pipe walls (approximately 10 grains through the 6.0 mm, or 0.236 in., wall thickness). Other coarse-grained regions were located 90° circumferentially from the cracked areas. It was concluded that the pipes had been manufactured by extrusion through a...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003243
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... Abstract Stress-corrosion cracking (SCC) occurs under service conditions, which can result, often without any prior warning, in catastrophic failure. Hydrogen embrittlement is distinguished from stress-corrosion cracking generally by the interactions of the specimens with applied currents. To...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006472
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
...-flight diffraction ultrasonic technique cracks TIME-OF-FLIGHT DIFFRACTION (TOFD) is an ultrasonic technique used to detect diffracted waves from crack tips and to size the cracks from the arrival times of those waves. Its primary use is rapid weld testing of circumferential and axial weld seams...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005654
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
... Abstract This article describes some of the mechanical/ electrochemical phenomena related to the in vivo degradation of metals used for biomedical applications. It discusses the properties and failure of these materials as they relate to stress-corrosion cracking (SCC) and corrosion fatigue (CF...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006767
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... Abstract This article describes concepts and tools that can be used by the failure analyst to understand and address deformation, cracking, or fracture after a stress-related failure has occurred. Issues related to the determination and use of stress are detailed. Stress is defined, and a...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006776
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... during their lifetime. This article focuses on fractography of fatigue. It provides an abbreviated summary of fatigue processes and mechanisms: fatigue crack initiation, fatigue crack propagation, and final fracture,. Characteristic fatigue fracture features that can be discerned visually or under low...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006779
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... Abstract Fatigue failures may occur in components subjected to fluctuating (time-dependent) loading as a result of progressive localized permanent damage described by the stages of crack initiation, cyclic crack propagation, and subsequent final fracture after a given number of load...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0000611
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... before uniting into a single circumferential crack front. Figure 719 shows a fracture in the head of a valve with a hardness of 37 HRC. The fatigue-crack origin is at right, at the head-stem juncture. Note the peeled surface layer. Fig. 717 and 718 : 10×. Fig. 719 : 2× Fig. 698 Fig. 699...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0009008
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... geometry and friction conditions; strain measurements; crack detection; and material inhomogeneities, which are to be considered for performing cold upset testing. It describes test characteristics in terms of deformation, free-surface strains, and stress states for performing cylindrical compression tests...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005950
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... microstructure, distortion, residual stress, and cracking in gears, shafts, and bearing rings. bearing rings cracking distortion electrical conductivity gears heat treatment heat treatment simulation induction hardening magnetic permeability microstructure phase transformation residual stress...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0000605
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... copper along grain boundaries in the steel, in some cases reaching the tube outer-diameter surface. The copper-embrittled grain boundaries could not withstand both the high temperature and internal tube pressure. Either a longitudinal rupture ( Fig. 133 ) or circumferential cracking ( Fig. 134 ) resulted...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0000619
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... stress-corrosion cracking (SCC). The 90-cm (35 5 8 -in.) diam perforated roll was made of a centrifugally cast tin bronze (90Cu-10Sn-1Pb) similar to UNS C90500. A circumferential crack was discovered in the shell and its rubber cover after more than 4 years of operation. The crack extended...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0000612
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... classic example of cup-and-cone tension-overload fracture in an unnotched specimen of 13-8 PH stainless steel with tensile strength of 1634 MPa (237 ksi) and 47% reduction of area. There are circumferential secondary cracks at the base of the shear lip. See also Fig. 721 . 9× Fig. 721 SEM view...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003233
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... inspect magnetic materials for defects such as cracks, voids, and inclusions and to assess other material properties, such as grain size, texture, and hardness. This article discusses the principles of such defect detection, providing details on the origin, generation, and assessment of leakage field data...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0000625
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... necking of both fibers and matrix. Radial cracks propagating along fiber grain boundaries were caused by the circumferential stresses generated during reduction of the cross-sectional area (∼50%) during necking. Higher-magnification views revealed a fibrous, ductile fracture surface. SEM, 250× (C. Kim...