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circle grid strain analysis

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14b.a0005182
EISBN: 978-1-62708-186-3
.... The article describes the types of strain analysis, namely, thinning strain analysis and circle grid strain analysis. It also provides information on the applications of the thinning strain analysis. bead correction factor circle grid strain analysis flat blanks formability troubleshooting forming...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14b.a0005149
EISBN: 978-1-62708-186-3
... testing, and simulative tests such as bending tests, stretching tests, the Ohio State University test, the drawing test, and stretch-drawing tests. It extends the correlation between simulative tests and materials properties using forming limit diagrams and circle grid analysis, and discusses...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006801
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... areas is used to establish initial dimensions from which forming strains are measured. Circle grid strain analysis uses a grid of circles having a diameter of typically either 2.5 or 5.0 mm (0.1 or 0.2 in.). Calibrated polyester film strips are available to directly measure strains on deformed...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01.a0001031
EISBN: 978-1-62708-161-0
... the circle grid analysis is made because excessive strains exhibited by formable steel are a clear indication that changes in processing will be required. Simulative Forming Tests Numerous tests have been developed to observe and compare the performance of steel sheets under actual forming conditions...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14b.a0005152
EISBN: 978-1-62708-186-3
... levels of SDC require a preliminary stamping analysis. Measurement of deformation at the critical location is a key element of SDC. Therefore, an early circle grid analysis of the stamping in question is required to identify the location, mode, and severity of strain in the most critical zone within...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0009004
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... analysis on split, gridded specimens ( Fig. 42 ), the strain and stresses at the center of the workpiece were calculated for several increments of deformation. The hydrostatic stress state at the center of the specimen is not always tensile; initially, it is compressive, and then it reverses, becoming...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14b.a0005150
EISBN: 978-1-62708-186-3
... ksi), which is only slightly more than the 350 MPa (51 ksi) desired. Note that the line of analysis of the hood centerline and its normal direction may or may not be identical to the major/minor strain axis determined from actual circle grid measurements or the output of a simulation. The target...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005233
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... into nonoverlapping cells, a process known as discretization, and generating an array of cells, referred to as a grid or mesh. This article introduces the discretization techniques used by finite-difference, finite-volume, and finite-element methods of numerical analysis. The discrete equations of the finite...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 8
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v08.a0003258
EISBN: 978-1-62708-176-4
... on the condition that it is the tensile stress that causes failure (breakage of rod or wire), and that this stress must be below the flow stress of the metal at the die exit. Thus, strain hardening, die angle, and friction are important parameters ( Ref 2 , 3 , 4 , 6 , 11 , 12 ). In the analysis...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004017
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... tests, such as the tension test, ring compression test, plane-strain compression test, bend test, indentation test, and forgeability test. It concludes with information on the role of the finite-element modeling software used in workability analysis. bend test bulk forming processes cracking...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005454
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... an integral product. to as oil canning. Distortion of a flat or nearly sheet metal blank. flat metal surface that can be deflected by cogging. The reducing operation in working an finger pressure but will return to its original circle-grid analysis. The analysis of deformed ingot into a billet with a forging...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.9781627081856
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004031
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
..., or semiviscous materials circle-grid analysis. The analysis of deformed cold coined forging. A forging that has been (which do not fail in compression by a shat- circles to determine the severity with which a restruck cold in order to hold closer face dis- tering fracture), the value obtained for com- sheet...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14b.a0005151
EISBN: 978-1-62708-186-3
..., empirical methods were used to provide the relationship between acceptable formability and strain state. Perhaps the best known of these is circle grid analysis (CGA). The CGA technique was used with controlled tests forming domes, cylindrical cups, and so on and special tensile tests to determine limiting...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003241
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
...-relaxation testing. Shear testing, torsion testing, and formability testing are also discussed. The discussion of tension testing includes information about stress-strain curves and the properties described by them. compression testing fatigue testing formability testing fracture testing hardness...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003390
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... laminate properties, perform point-stress analysis, run moisture-diffusion calculations, estimate free-edge effects, and determine strains in a plate with a hole. Analysis starts with definition of the lay-up. Plies are entered in a grid, with buttons for adding and removing layers, and moving layers...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22b.9781627081979
EISBN: 978-1-62708-197-9
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22b.a0005543
EISBN: 978-1-62708-197-9
... stress-strain curve. See also modulus of with which one body will slide over another. (negative electrode) under the in uence of a elasticity. It is obtained by dividing the tangential force potential gradient. circle grid. A regular pattern of circles, often resisting motion between the two bodies...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14b.a0005161
EISBN: 978-1-62708-186-3
... and compressive stresses in the bend zone. Because the tensile stresses go from zero at point 0 on the neutral axis to a maximum value at point X on the outside surface, the stress-strain curve developed by the standard tensile test may be used for an analysis of bending. For good bend design, the tensile stress...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0009005
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... to correlate process variables to failure or microstructure evolution ( Ref 9 , Ref 10 ). Typical results for the effective strain developed in wedge forging are shown in Fig. 3 . Fig. 3 Finite-element-model predictions for the wedge-forging test, assuming a friction shear factor of 0.4. (a) Grid...