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chromic acid process

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001281
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... Colorless, transparent films For coloring to dark tones, bronze and black Bengough-Stuart (original process) Chromic acid 3 40 105 60 0–50 0.3 3 5 0.2 Colorless to dark brown Good chemical resistance, poor abrasion resistance; suitable for parts with narrow cavities, as residual...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02a.a0006489
EISBN: 978-1-62708-207-5
...Abstract Abstract Etching aluminum can be a pretreatment step for anodizing, chemical conversion coating, metal-to-rubber bonding, and a host of other processes. Chemical etching, using either alkaline or acid solutions, produces a matte finish on aluminum products. This article describes...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001274
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
..., phosphating, rinsing after phosphating, and chromic acid rinsing. The article describes the techniques for controlling the chemical composition of various phosphating solutions. It discusses the equipment and factors that influence equipment requirements in immersion and spray systems. The article also...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001243
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
.... Chromic acid wastes may be either recovered or destroyed, and the choice of process should be based on a comparison of initial costs, labor costs for operation and maintenance, chemical costs, space requirements, and utility costs. The volume of wastes and the value of the chromic acid and rinse water...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003221
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
.... Anodizing Processes The basic reaction in all anodizing processes is conversion of the aluminum surface to aluminum oxide while the part is the anode in an electrolytic cell. The three principal types of anodizing processes are (a) chromic, in which the active agent is chromic acid; (b) sulfuric...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003221
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... in an electrolytic cell. The three principal types of anodizing processes are (a) chromic, in which the active agent is chromic acid; (b) sulfuric, in which the active agent is sulfuric acid; and (c) hard processes that use sulfuric acid alone or with additives. Other processes, used less frequently...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001244
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... chromium plating baths Table 2 Compositions and operating conditions for two chromium plating baths Constituent or condition General decorative bath Bright, crack-free bath Chromic acid 250 g/L (33.0 oz/gal) 260–300 g/L (35–40 oz/gal) Ratio of chromic acid to sulfate 100:1 to 125:1...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003215
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... COPPER can be electrodeposited from numerous electrolytes. Cyanide and pyrophosphate alkalines, plus sulfate and fluoborate acid baths, are the primary electrolytes used in copper plating. HARD CHROMIUM PLATING is produced by electrodeposition from a solution containing chromic acid (CrO 3...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003215
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... Plating HARD CHROMIUM PLATING is produced by electrodeposition from a solution containing chromic acid (CrO 3 ) and a catalytic anion in proper proportion. The metal so produced is extremely hard and corrosion resistant. The process is used for rebuilding mismachined or worn parts, for automotive...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003680
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... in the neutral solutions gives rise to a linear increase in Δ and potential E a with time, and then the oxide formation stops abruptly, at “film breakdown” potential, E bd , which is significantly dependent on the kind and the concentration of anodizing solution. Processing in diluted boric acid solutions...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02a.a0006511
EISBN: 978-1-62708-207-5
... be used as an alternative. (b) Smut may also be removed mechanically. Sulfuric-phosphoric-chromic acid electrobrightening operating conditions and suitable post-treatments are given in Table 4 . This process is used primarily for macrosmoothing to replace mechanical polishing wholly or in part...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001227
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... by a phosphating stage. The process is completed by using either two successive stages of unheated water rinsing or one stage of unheated water and one of unheated or heated mild chromic acid solution. Parts are conveyed from stage to stage singly on a belt or by using an overhead monorail system with parts...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001310
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
..., as in alkaline cleaning, chromic acid pickling, and anodizing. The rate of metal removal by acid pickling also increases with acid concentration. Solutions are usually formulated so that the pickling rate is fast enough to be economical, but not so fast that metal removal is difficult to control...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004187
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... on the alloy composition, the halides ( Ref 3 ), and the other species in solution. In the absence of halides, the corrosion rates can be high if the redox potential is such that the transpassive regime is reached (e.g., chromic acid). PROCESS FLUIDS are often found to contain various salts from catalysts...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001308
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
..., there is danger of surface contamination by ferrous metals, caused by the use of either a steel barrel or a steel medium. Second, the pH of the compounds is more critical when processing aluminum, because the metal is susceptible to etching by both acids and alkalis, and because gas generated during chemical...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003824
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... ), 1988 4. Platinized Niobium Anodes Halt the Tide of Corrosion on Two Bridges , Outlook , Vol 7 ( No. 2 ), 1986 5. Columbium Fights Corrosion in Cathodic Protection Devices , Outlook , Vol 6 ( No. 2 ), 1985 6. Niobium Evaporator Resists Corrosion in Chromic Acid Recovery Process...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05b.a0006027
EISBN: 978-1-62708-172-6
... soluble secondary phosphate and an insoluble tertiary phosphate, both of which precipitate onto the surface at the areas of lower acid concentration. In the process, they are molecularly bonded to the metal. The resulting phosphate layer consists principally of phosphate crystals but may have amorphous...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001275
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... substrate microstructure substrate protection CHROMATE CONVERSION COATINGS are formed on metal surfaces as a result of the chemical attack that occurs when a metal is immersed in or sprayed with an aqueous solution of chromic acid, chromium salts such as sodium or potassium chromate or dichromate...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003847
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
...Frequently used rubber linings in the chemical process industries Table 1 Frequently used rubber linings in the chemical process industries Application Lining Hydrochloric acid  Transportation and storage of 25 to 37% concentration Pure gum natural rubber  Transportation...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003022
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... in these categories—e.g., PSU, PEI, and PES—the surface must be first swelled ( Ref 13 ) and then the appropriate etchant (usually a strong chromic acid solution...