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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004183
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... Alloy 255 <0.25 <0.01 N-12M 76 3.01 ACI CW-12M 3.8 0.15 M-35 29 1.15 ACI, Alloy Casting Institute. Source: Ref 43 Corrosion in chlorine-saturated water Table 4 Corrosion in chlorine-saturated water Temperature: 25 °C (75 °F) Alloy Test duration, days...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004190
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
.... The article examines the corrosion problems in high-yield mechanical pulping, sulfite process, neutral sulfite semichemical pulping, chemical recovery, tall oil plants, wastewater treatment, and recovery boilers. It explains the stages of chlorine-based and nonchlorine bleaching, process water reuse...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003825
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... … Room E Carbon tetrachloride 99 Boiling E Liquid Boiling E Pure Room E 5–10 aqueous solution Room E Chlorinated brine … … E Chlorinated hydrocarbons … … E Chlorinated water Saturated Room E Chlorine dioxide … 180 (355) E Chlorine gas Dry Up to 250 (480...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003701
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
..., and chlorine), dissolved ions (such as calcium, magnesium, chloride, sulfate, and bicarbonate), and suspended solids make water something other than pure H 2 O. For the corrosion reactions to take place between water and the metal surface, a potential difference must exist between different areas...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14b.a0005159
EISBN: 978-1-62708-186-3
... Solutions (water) Coatings Pastes Particulate concentration X … … X X … X Emulsifier level … … … X … … … Viscosity X … … X X … … Sulfur concentration X X X X X … … Chlorine concentration X X X X X … … Particle size … … … X X … … Solids...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001278
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... led to some improvement in the performance of the adhesion promoter, but it must be realized that the key ingredient for adhesion is the chlorinated polyolefin. Water-based adhesion promoters for TPO are only now becoming available. As patents are issued and more publications become available, we...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004171
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... interacts with the water vapor in the air and forms low-grade hydrochloric acid (HCl) vapors. The first phase of the study involved placing preinspected wafers with 2.0% aluminum copper deposition (witness wafers) in locations near the 8330 metal etcher before opening the process chamber to atmosphere...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004132
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
...–930 Uniform Ref 17 Deionized water ≈374 ≈705 Some pitting Ref 18 Highly chlorinated organic 600 1110 Wastage, stress-corrosion cracking (SCC) Ref 19 pH higher than 12 500 930 SCC and other forms Ref 17 Nickel-base alloys Alloys 625 and C276 Deionized water 300...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004175
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... levels of corrosive substances such as chlorinated water can be lethal to electronic circuits. In this context, corrosion and related phenomena in portable electronic products are extremely important to the reliable operation of a portable consumer electronic product...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003189
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
..., surface-active chemical fluids are similar to the plain (general-purpose) surface-active type but have chlorine, sulfur, or phosphorus additives to provide EP lubrication effects. These fluids are diluted at one part concentrate to between 5 and 30 parts water for tougher machining operations...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001223
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... water temperature to about 8 to 11 °C (15 to 20 °F) above the dew point of the surrounding atmosphere, that is, about 32 to 46 °C (90 to 115 °F), for all the chlorinated solvents except methylene chloride. For methylene chloride or fluorocarbon 113, do not allow the discharge water temperature to go...
Book: Machining
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 16
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1989
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v16.a0002128
EISBN: 978-1-62708-188-7
.... The addition of lead, sulfur, and bismuth to steels improves their machinability. Water-base cutting fluids are most effective with these materials, particularly those containing sulfur-base additives as well as fatty esters. Chlorinated EP additives are not generally effective. Low-carbon steels...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04a.a0005778
EISBN: 978-1-62708-165-8
... be estimated on the basis of available chlorine content in the compound. Solid cyanide wastes must be dissolved in water before they can be treated. A tank of suitable capacity, equipped with a coarse screen set well above the bottom, will facilitate solution of the solid material. The tank should also...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004151
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... on the gasification process used and the fuel composition, especially its sulfur and chlorine content. The syngas composition of processes with water-coal slurry systems is typically (vol%) 35 to 45 CO, 10 to 15 CO 2 , 27 to 30 H 2 , 15 to 25 H 2 O, 0.2 to 1.2 H 2 S, and 50 to 500 ppm HCl; for a dry-fed gasifier...
Book Chapter

By David V. Neff
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005353
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
...Summary of gases found in copper alloys Table 1 Summary of gases found in copper alloys Alloy family Gases present Remarks Pure copper Water vapor, hydrogen Approximate hydrogen/water vapor ratio of 1. Higher purity increases the amount of water vapor and lowers hydrogen...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004104
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... chlorine (2 ppm or more). This is especially critical in reclaimed water systems, because chlorine can cause severe corrosion of copper and brass. Any process stream containing more than 0.1 ppm of hydrogen sulfide should be prevented from contacting copper or brass. Brasses containing over 15% Zn may...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004137
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... or thermal/catalytic oxidation, is used for destruction. If the contaminated water were sent directly to a carbon system, the adsorption of the compound may be 1 to 2 wt%. From air, 25 wt% is collected, so the air stripper increases efficiency. While air strippers are exposed to chlorinated compounds...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003692
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
..., and moisture and chemical resistance. For example, modification with a chlorinated rubber resin results in improved toughness and adhesion as well as an increase in acid, alkali, and water resistance. Such modified paints are used on concrete floors and as highway-marking paints. Modification...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003847
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
.... Wet chlorine service. Requires the addition of graphite to the compound Advantages of hard natural rubber are: Excellent chemical resistance Good resistance to elevated temperatures up to 121 °C (250 °F) Low permeation rate Low water absorption Good resistance to wet chlorine...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001240
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... and toughness are conflicting properties in cutting tools. Grinding fluids can be composed of petroleum oil, extreme-pressure lubricants, emulsifiers, soaps, wetting agents, coupling agents, corrosion inhibitors, biocides, antifoams, and water. Depending on composition, fluids are generally categorized...