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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004151
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
...) coolers. Extensive laboratory corrosion studies on both model and commercial alloys are summarized. The article describes the material selection criteria for long-term performance of materials in service. It provides information on the fuels with chlorine contents used in gasification plants...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0004050
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... on heat-transfer surfaces. The moisture content and the ash, sulfur, and chlorine content of biofuels, coal, and municipal solid waste (MSW) are given in Table 1 ( Ref 13 , 14 ). The chlorine content of coals varies from less than 0.005 to almost 1 wt% ( Ref 15 ). Chlorine in coals is in the form...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004156
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... International , 1988 10. Leeds D.J. , “A Summary of Observations Relating Furnace Wall Fireside Corrosion to Chlorine Content of Coal,” SSD/MID/M26/79, 1979 11. Kung S.C. , “Corrosion Studies for Low-NO x Burner Technology,” Report TR-108750, Electric Power Research Institute...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001278
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... polymers have been reported to provide good adhesion to TPO, but they apparently have not found widespread use ( Ref 36 , 37 , 38 , 39 , 40 ). The chemistry and properties of chlorinated polypropylene have been described by Fujimoto ( Ref 41 ). Chlorine content and crystallinity are key parameters...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 7
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v07.a0006095
EISBN: 978-1-62708-175-7
... examined in Table 5 , the BE compacts for the other tables were exclusively prepared by sampling titanium −100-mesh sponge fines blended with master alloy powders. In these compacts the chlorine content could be in the range of 500 to 1500 ppm. Such high chloride content could result in chlorine...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003695
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
.... There is approximately a 10 to 1 ratio between the sulfur content of hard (ebonite) and soft natural rubbers. The hard rubbers can be machined after vulcanization to make acid-resistant seals, valves, and pump bodies. Hard rubbers resist extreme corrosive exposure from wet and dry chlorine gas. They offer chemical...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05a.a0005708
EISBN: 978-1-62708-171-9
... contents in many biomasses are potentially harmful ( Ref 11 ). In oxidizing environments, gaseous chlorine accelerates oxidation by the mechanism of active oxidation ( Ref 12 ). The most severe corrosion problems in biomass-fired systems are observed due to chlorine-rich low-melting deposits such as alkali...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001240
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
.... (d) The quantitation limit is greater than the calculated regulatory level and therefore becomes the regulatory level. Source: Ref 2 Another factor in determining whether the spent fluid is hazardous is chlorine content. According to the federal regulations, if the waste contains over 1000...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04a.a0005778
EISBN: 978-1-62708-165-8
... be estimated on the basis of available chlorine content in the compound. Solid cyanide wastes must be dissolved in water before they can be treated. A tank of suitable capacity, equipped with a coarse screen set well above the bottom, will facilitate solution of the solid material. The tank should also...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14b.a0005139
EISBN: 978-1-62708-186-3
... Lubrication Example 7: Increase in Chlorine Content and Viscosity of Lubricant that Improved Results in Forming Dies Springback Example 2: Setting a Flange Angle in a Press Brake Lubricants Applications Example 3: Press-Brake Forming of Corrugations Example 4: Forming of Stainless...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 7
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v07.a0006078
EISBN: 978-1-62708-175-7
... the nozzle, with titanium powder being carried out in the excess sodium stream. Titanium, sodium, and NaCl are separated by filtration, distillation, and washing. The powder produced has a purity level near to that of CP grade 1 titanium, including a chlorine content of less than 50 ppm ( Ref 2...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004183
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... on chlorine pressure, temperature, flow rate, purity, and degree of surface abrasion of the titanium ( Ref 30 ). Figure 3 shows a general guideline for water content needed to maintain passivity of commercial-purity titanium in chlorine at temperatures to 105 °C (220 °F). Related tests were performed...
Book Chapter

By David V. Neff
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005353
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
.... Copper-tin-lead-zinc alloys Water vapor, hydrogen, CO Lead does not affect the gases present. Higher tin lowers total gas content. Increased zinc increases the amount of hydrogen, with a loss in water vapor. Aluminum bronzes Water vapor, hydrogen, CO The presence of 5 wt% Ni in alloy C95800 causes...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003692
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... to their high VOC content. Chlorinated rubber coating systems had been much more widely used in Europe than in the United States, and systems based on chlorinated rubbers have excellent resistance to acids, alkalis, oxidizing agents and have very low water vapor transmission rates (approximately one- tenth...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004171
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... is one of the major problems associated with the metal plasma etch process. Dry etching in a chlorine-containing plasma is a potentially important technique for patterning aluminum alloy lines for very large scale integration (VLSI) circuits. However, aluminum alloy lines formed by dry etching are prone...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004190
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
.... The article examines the corrosion problems in high-yield mechanical pulping, sulfite process, neutral sulfite semichemical pulping, chemical recovery, tall oil plants, wastewater treatment, and recovery boilers. It explains the stages of chlorine-based and nonchlorine bleaching, process water reuse...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003812
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
.... With increasing chromium content and the presence or absence of some ten to fifteen other elements, stainless steels can provide an extraordinary range of corrosion resistance. Various grades have been used for many years in environments as mild as open air in architectural applications and as severe...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004137
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... Temperature Erosion Metals Nonmetals These gases are characterized by extremely high temperatures (1000 °C, or 1830 °F, is not uncommon) used to destroy the chemical. This can result in the formation of halogenated compounds from chlorine or fluorine in the raw material. Hydrogen bromide, sulfur...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003701
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... recirculating system In Once-Through Systems In once-through systems, the cooling water passes through the heat-transfer equipment only once before it is discharged. Large volumes of water are used with only a small temperature increase across the exchanger. The mineral content of the water remains...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003189
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... oils Used at dilutions between 1:50 and 1:100. Their high emulsifier content results in emulsions that vary from translucent to clear. Used for grinding or light-duty machining (3) Fatty soluble oils Used at similar concentrations to (1) and of similar appearance. Their fat content makes them...