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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004151
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
.... It provides information on the fuels with chlorine contents used in gasification plants. gasification plants high-temperature corrosion material selection criteria chlorine content synthetic gas coolers long-term performance INTENSIVE DEVELOPMENT of gasification technology has been carried out...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0004050
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... chromium content are very prone to these types of attack. To improve the corrosion resistance of alumina-forming alloys against type I hot corrosion, 15 to 25% Cr is recommended; for type II hot corrosion, approximately 25 to 40% Cr is recommended ( Ref 11 ). The rates of mixed oxidation and chlorination...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004156
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... similar to that found in municipal solid waste boilers. A direct correlation of corrosion rate with the coal chlorine content has been reported by researchers in the United Kingdom, where the chlorine concentration available in coal has increased steadily from 0.35 to 0.65% over the last two decades ( Ref...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001278
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... by the chlorinated polypropylene. Other polymers have been reported to provide good adhesion to TPO, but they apparently have not found widespread use ( Ref 36 , 37 , 38 , 39 , 40 ). The chemistry and properties of chlorinated polypropylene have been described by Fujimoto ( Ref 41 ). Chlorine content...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 7
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v07.a0006095
EISBN: 978-1-62708-175-7
... powders. In these compacts the chlorine content could be in the range of 500 to 1500 ppm. Such high chloride content could result in chlorine-associated voids and might preclude the attainment of 100% densification. In contrast, the extrusion billets used in generating the data for Table 5 were...
Image
Published: 01 January 2005
Fig. 36 Water content necessary to maintain passivity of unalloyed titanium in static chlorine gas atmospheres. Source: Ref 138 More
Image
Published: 01 January 2005
Fig. 35 Effect of temperature and gas flow on the critical water content required to passivate titanium in pure chlorine gas. Source: Ref 137 More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004183
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... with silicon contents in the 10 to 15% range, however, reportedly resisted attack by dry chlorine ( Ref 10 , 11 ), but their poor impact properties limit practical applications in such critical service. Below 250 °C (480 °F), the presence of oxygen and moisture had little effect on iron chlorination rates...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04a.a0005778
EISBN: 978-1-62708-165-8
.... Of major concern has been the cyanide content from the processes and processed parts cleaning fluids. Although much was done in the area of waste treatment and waste disposal, in many instances these added costs caused the cyanide-bearing processes to no longer be economically viable. There was a switch...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003695
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
...) rubber was initially compounded in 1939 as neoprene ( Ref 7 ). Chloroprene rubber is a polar rubber because it contains a ratio of carbon atoms to chlorine atoms of 4 to 1. Chlorine content also imparts better flame resistance, weatherability, and ozone resistance than experienced with diene rubbers...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05a.a0005708
EISBN: 978-1-62708-171-9
... potassium and chlorine contents in many biomasses are potentially harmful ( Ref 11 ). In oxidizing environments, gaseous chlorine accelerates oxidation by the mechanism of active oxidation ( Ref 12 ). The most severe corrosion problems in biomass-fired systems are observed due to chlorine-rich low-melting...
Book Chapter

By David V. Neff
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005353
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... the methods of degassing aluminum, magnesium, and copper alloys. It provides information on the sources of hydrogen in aluminum and gases in copper. castings aluminum copper alloys degassing gas porosity hydrogen content gas content magnesium reliability GAS POROSITY is a major factor...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004171
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... problems associated with the metal plasma etch process. Dry etching in a chlorine-containing plasma is a potentially important technique for patterning aluminum alloy lines for very large scale integration (VLSI) circuits. However, aluminum alloy lines formed by dry etching are prone to corrode upon...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14b.a0005139
EISBN: 978-1-62708-186-3
... for high-speed operations. In the following example, high chlorine content and high viscosity were needed to produce acceptable parts (see also example 15, in which a low-viscosity chlorine-base lubricant replaced a viscous mineral oil). Example 7: Increase in Chlorine Content and Viscosity of Lubricant...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004190
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... examines the corrosion problems in high-yield mechanical pulping, sulfite process, neutral sulfite semichemical pulping, chemical recovery, tall oil plants, wastewater treatment, and recovery boilers. It explains the stages of chlorine-based and nonchlorine bleaching, process water reuse for elemental...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003432
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... (EEW) Epoxy resins are chemically reacted to determine the epoxide content per unit weight of resin by wet chemical titration. Epoxide content is a measure of potential crosslink density. Hydrolyzable Chloride Epoxy resins are frequently made from chlorinated compounds. Any residual...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001240
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
.... (d) The quantitation limit is greater than the calculated regulatory level and therefore becomes the regulatory level. Source: Ref 2 Another factor in determining whether the spent fluid is hazardous is chlorine content. According to the federal regulations, if the waste contains over 1000...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003581
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... content of the magnesium chloride melt, magnesium or sodium content, and oxygen content of the product. It concludes with a discussion on the oxygen activity in the titanium metal product. chloride corrosion indicator electrode magnesium magnesium chloride molecular solvent molten salt molten...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004181
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... Abstract Hydrochloric acid (HCl) may contain traces of impurities that will change the aggressiveness of the solution. This article discusses the effects of impurities such as fluorides, ferric salts, cupric salts, chlorine, and organic solvents, in HCl. It describes the corrosion resistance...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004137
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... variety of services. The corrosion resistance of FRP is a function of both the resin content and the specific resin used in the laminate. Chloro-Alkali Plants The production of chlorine results in severe corrosion problems. Quantities of chlorine in the effluent gas are normally scrubbed using...