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chloride threshold

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05b.a0006070
EISBN: 978-1-62708-172-6
... with regard to corrosion, namely, chlorides, sulfates, and nitrates, and provides information on recognition and testing of the presence of soluble salts. The salt-measurement techniques and commercially available equipment are also described. The article provides information on research regarding tolerable...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004168
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... the concentration of chloride ions reaches a threshold level, corrosion commences. In time, as this corrosion proceeds, the buildup of corrosion products at the rebar-concrete interface generates sufficient pressure to crack the concrete. By the mid-1960s, highway engineers and scientists recognized...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003666
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
..., and operating stresses are additive. The results are strongly influenced by the mechanical aspects of the tests, such as method of loading and specimen size. These mechanical aspects can have variable effects on the initiation and propagation lifetimes and can influence estimates of a threshold stress...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004103
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
...; and the proper environmental conditions of pH, chloride content, and threshold temperature. Each alloy has a threshold temperature above which it will crack but below which it will not. Table 5 lists the approximate threshold temperatures for some of the more common alloys. Fig. 2 Pitting corrosion...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 19
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1996
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v19.a0002405
EISBN: 978-1-62708-193-1
... will take place. Stress-corrosion cracking of duplex stainless steels occurs in concentrated chloride solutions such as boiling magnesium chloride, as well as in sour gas environments that contain chloride and hydrogen sulfide ( Ref 76 ). Threshold stresses for SCC of duplex stainless steels...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006785
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... the relationship between applied stress and time-to-fracture in boiling 42% magnesium chloride solution for various austenitic stainless steel alloys. As indicated by the nearly horizontal portions of the curves, the threshold stress in this environment is approximately 241 MPa (35 ksi) for the higher-alloy...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003553
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
...-environment combinations, threshold stress is approximately 70% of yield strength ( Ref 10 ). The effect of alloy composition on threshold stress is typified by the graph in Fig. 3 , which illustrates the relationship between applied stress and average time-to-fracture in boiling 42% magnesium chloride...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 19
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1996
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v19.a0002397
EISBN: 978-1-62708-193-1
... Abstract This article summarizes the metallurgy of carbon and alloy steels, followed by discussions on their major mechanical properties, namely, static fracture toughness, dynamic fracture toughness, fatigue or sustained-load crack growth rates, and fatigue or sustained-load thresholds...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 8
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v08.a0003309
EISBN: 978-1-62708-176-4
... fracture mechanics metals environmentally assisted crack growth polymers nanoscale environmental effects indentation-induced cohesive cracking scanning probe microscopy Precracked Specimen Testing qxidizing Gas acidified chloride ceramics liquid metals environmentally assisted cracking...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003668
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... chloride at 23 °C (73 °F). Stress ratio: R = 0.1. K max , maximum stress-intensity factor; K ISCC , threshold stress intensity for stress-corrosion cracking. Source: Ref 57 Fig. 15 Effect of stress ratio ( R ) on corrosion-fatigue crack propagation in ASTM A533 B and A508 carbon steels...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 19
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1996
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v19.a0002388
EISBN: 978-1-62708-193-1
... strength and test times are greater than 1000 h, or strain rates are greater than 10 −5 /s ( Ref 132 ). Fig. 18 Effect of nickel content on the maximum crack growth rate and threshold stress-intensity factor for Fe-Ni-Cr alloys in hot chloride solutions ( Ref 154 ) Fig. 25 Fracture...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003620
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
.... , Kheyrandish H. , Colligon J.S. , Hitchman M.L. , Cade N. , and Iredale J. , The Observation of a Threshold in the De-Alloying of Sputter-Deposited Pt x Al 1−x Alloy Thin Films , Corros. Sci. , Vol 40 , 1998 , p 43 – 48 10.1016/S0010-938X(97)00109-1 35. Szot J...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003633
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... Table 1 Alloy-environment systems exhibiting SCC Alloy Environment Carbon steel Hot nitrate, hydroxide, and carbonate/bicarbonate solutions High-strength steels Aqueous electrolytes, particularly when containing H 2 S Austenitic stainless steels Hot, concentrated chloride...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003555
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... and/or potassium sulfate salts. Very small amounts of sulfur and sodium or potassium can produce sufficient Na 2 SO 4 . In gas turbine environments, a sodium threshold level below 0.008 ppm by weight precluded type 1 hot corrosion. Other impurities, such as vanadium, phosphorus, lead, chlorides, and unburned...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004155
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
.... K ISCC , threshold stress intensity. Courtesy of O. Jonas, Jonas, Inc. Fig. 2 Corrosion fatigue of an L-1 blade airfoil. Courtesy of O. Jonas, Jonas, Inc. Fig. 3 Corrosion fatigue (Goodman) diagram for three stainless steel blading alloys in various environments. Based on 10 8...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003822
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... to many highly corrosive environments, particularly oxidizing and chloride-containing process streams, has led to widespread nonaerospace (industrial) applications. Stemming from decreasing cost and increasing availability of mill and fabricated products, titanium and its alloys have become standard...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 19
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1996
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v19.a0002362
EISBN: 978-1-62708-193-1
... of dissolved oxygen in accelerating cracking and eliminating the stress threshold. Source: Ref 4 Fig. 3 Empirically derived design codes for corrosion fatigue of offshore welded tube structures, illustrating their invalidity under specific test conditions and their constantly changing formulation...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02b.a0006545
EISBN: 978-1-62708-210-5
... threshold stress MPa ksi MPa ksi MPa ksi 7055-T7751 538 78 586 85 … 15 2.2 7150-T7751 538 78 579 84 EB 25 3.6 7150-T6151 538 78 579 84 EC … … 7050-T7651 462 67 531 77 EB 25 3.6 7075-T7651 407 59 483 70 EB 25 3.6 7075-T651 476 69...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.9781627081849
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001321
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... for emitting industries. Phase out ozone-depleting substances Obtain an operating permit for sources of VOCs and HAPs that trigger threshold amounts Reduce emissions from power plants, to reduce the generation of “acid rain” from NOX and SOX Following are the broad thresholds for determining...