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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003609
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
.... Specific examples of the types of corrosion expected for the different metal-fused salt systems are also provided. The metal-fused salt systems include molten fluorides, chloride salts, molten nitrates, molten sulfates, hydroxide melts, and carbonate melts. The article concludes with information on...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004181
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... copper copper alloys corrosion resistance corrosion-resistant cast iron ferritic stainless steel fluorides hydrochloric acid dry hydrogen chloride natural rubber nickel nickel alloys nonmetallic materials tantalum tantalum alloys thermoplastics titanium titanium alloys ferric salts...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003581
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
...: reference electrodes and indicator electrodes. It explains that corrosion in molten salts can be caused by the solubility of the metal in the salt, particularly if the metal dissolves in its own chloride. The article describes the factors that affect the corrosion of titanium, namely, the titanium chloride...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005929
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... treating processes or applications Process or application Type of salt bath Cyanide Chloride-carbonate Chloride Nitrate-nitrite Nitrate Cyaniding X … … … … Liquid carburizing X … … … … Liquid nitriding X … … … … Austempering … … … X … Martempering...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001225
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... Abstract Molten salt baths are anhydrous, fused chemical baths used at elevated temperatures for a variety of industrial cleaning applications. This article discusses their applications in paint stripping, polymer removal, casting cleaning, glass removal, and plasma/flame spray removal. It...
Book Chapter

By J.R. Keough
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04a.a0005820
EISBN: 978-1-62708-165-8
... wash water, with a certain maximum salt percentage, containing no chlorides or cyanates and within a codified pH range, can be discharged into the sewer. The processor must check the regulations in the local community. Salt costs in heat treating systems with no reclamation can run from 5 to 15% of...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05b.a0006070
EISBN: 978-1-62708-172-6
... regard to corrosion, namely, chlorides, sulfates, and nitrates, and provides information on recognition and testing of the presence of soluble salts. The salt-measurement techniques and commercially available equipment are also described. The article provides information on research regarding tolerable...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003587
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
.... Surface analysis by Auger electron spectroscopy indicated varying thicknesses of iron oxide, nickel, and chromium layers. The Auger analysis showed that an annealed and air-cooled stainless steel specimen exposed to molten lithium chloride (LiCl)/potassium chloride (KCl) salt had corrosion to a depth five...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006787
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... oxidation, carburization, metal dusting, nitridation, carbonitridation, sulfidation, and chloridation. Several other potential degradation processes, namely hot corrosion, hydrogen interactions, molten salts, aging, molten sand, erosion-corrosion, and environmental cracking, are discussed under boiler tube...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003821
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
..., alkaline salt solutions, chlorine, hydrogen chloride, fluorine, and molten salts. Nickel has relatively high electrical and thermal conductivity as well as a high Curie temperature and good magnetostrictive properties. This leads to use in many electrical and electronic applications. Minor variations of...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04a.a0005802
EISBN: 978-1-62708-165-8
... are used for austenitizing before martempering in salt, because chloride salts are compatible with, and are easily separated from, the martempering bath. The composition and characteristics of a typical chloride salt medium are as follows: composition, 45 to 55% NaCl and 45 to 55% KCl; melting range...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003593
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... oxidation potential (log P O 2 ). Analogous sensors have been used with fused carbonate melts, fused chloride melts, and for oxyfluoride melts ( Ref 7 ), and they could be developed for other fused salt systems. In this article, the importance of the acid/base and oxidizing character of a...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003555
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... metal dusting, sulfidation, hot corrosion, chloridation, hydrogen interactions, molten metals, molten salts, and aging reactions including sensitization, stress-corrosion cracking, and corrosion fatigue. It concludes with a discussion on various protective coatings, such as aluminide coatings, overlay...
Book Chapter

By Daryl D. Peter
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001388
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
... for molten-salt dip brazing of selected alloy assemblies Workpiece alloy(s) Temperature Filter metal Salt °C °F Aluminum 540–615 1000–1140 (a) Fluoride-chloride-base Copper 815–870 1500–1600 BCuP (b) Chloride-base Ferrous 915–955 1675–1750 RBCuZn Chloride-base...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004187
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... Abstract Mixtures of acids or acids and salts are of great importance to the chemical process industry (CPI) for use in digestion of solids, as a promoter in reactions, as a scale remover, and as a complexant. This article emphasizes the assessment of the performance of Ni-Fe-Cr-Mo alloys in...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04a.a0005776
EISBN: 978-1-62708-165-8
... development of cyanide-free processes for liquid nitriding. In these proprietary processes, the base salt is supplied as a cyanide-free mixture of potassium cyanate and a combination of sodium carbonate and potassium carbonate, or sodium chloride and potassium chloride. Minor percentages of cyanide develop...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04a.a0005773
EISBN: 978-1-62708-165-8
... through extensive research. The process has been expanded further by Toyota to the carbide coating and the carbide/nitride coating by use of fluidized beds ( Ref 3 ) and chloride-based low-temperature salt baths. Fluidized-bed carbide coating and low-temperature salt bath nitride coating have been...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003825
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... tantalum ( Ref 11 ), Table 4 gives compatibility data for tantalum in numerous salts. Table 4 Effects of salts on tantalum Salt Concentration, % Temperature, °C (°F) Code (a) Aluminum acetate Saturated Room E Aluminum chloride 5 Room E Aluminum chloride (aerated) 5–10...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003646
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... chloride salt was added. Other similar tests also use deionized (DI) water. The aqueous test solution consists of 95% by weight of reagent water and 5% by weight of sodium chloride (NaCl), which contains not more than 0.1% by weight of sodium iodide, 0.3% by weight of total impurities, and 200 ppm total...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004163
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... automotive exhaust system. Steel automotive exhaust systems suffer from at least eight common forms of corrosion, including general cosmetic attack, chloride pitting, crevice, galvanic and intergranular corrosion, hot salt attack, oxidation, and corrosion fatigue. The general cosmetic attack is basic