1-20 of 578 Search Results for

chloride contamination

Follow your search
Access your saved searches in your account

Would you like to receive an alert when new items match your search?
Close Modal
Sort by
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05b.a0006070
EISBN: 978-1-62708-172-6
... surface chlorides Surface contamination, NaCl, µg/cm 2 Time to visible discolouration, h 3.5 120 5.3 20 30.9 0.5 Properties of salt contaminants Table 4 Properties of salt contaminants Salt Equilibrium partial pressure, mm Hg Relative humidity of air above saturated...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004184
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
...). Like titanium, zirconium is considered at high risk for LME in caustic contaminated with mercury. Zirconium is not attacked by oxidizing media unless chlorides are present ( Ref 16 ). Zirconium is very resistant to molten sodium hydroxide at temperatures above 1000 °C (1830 °F). It is resistant...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003117
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... of sulfidation attack. The atmospheric contaminants most often responsible for the rusting of structural stainless steels are chlorides and metallic iron dust. Chloride contamination can originate from the calcium chloride (CaCl 2 ) used to make concrete or from exposure in marine or industrial locations...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004168
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... on reinforcement corrosion is provided in the sections “pH and Corrosion Inhibition” and “Corrosion-Resistant Reinforcement” in this article. Chloride ion contamination of concrete characteristically follows one or more of four paths. First is contamination from saltwater for reinforced concrete structures...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003700
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... Corrosion topics • Coble N.D. , “Corrosion Philosophy: Treat the Source, Not the Symptom,” Paper 2480, presented at Corrosion/2002 , NACE International, 2002 • Gutzeit J. , “Effect of Organic Chloride Contamination of Crude Oil on Refinery Corrosion,” Paper 694, presented...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004220
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
..., cracking of the overlying concrete had occurred, indicating that galvanizing is at best a palliative coating for steel in chloride-contaminated cementitious materials. As far as is known, there is no direct evidence regarding the ability of galvanized steel to withstand a certain level of chloride...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004142
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... it may oxidize and form sulfuric acid) was removed by applying a sodium hydroxide solution to a small area and covering it with aluminum foil for short times ( Ref 61 ). Electrolytic reduction techniques are also used in the removal of chloride ions from contaminated artifacts ( Ref 115 ). Cast iron...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004180
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
..., peracids, or peroxides will cause rapid attack of copper and copper alloys, while the presence of chlorides, which are reducing, can have disastrous effects on stainless steels. Additional information on the role of contaminants in acetic acid corrosion is provided in Ref 2 . Corrosion testing can...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004113
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
...), silver/silver chloride electrodes (Ag/AgCl), and zinc electrodes. Copper/copper sulfate reference electrodes are used for measuring potentials in soils. Standard calomel electrodes contain mercury and are often used in the laboratory, but seldom in the field. Chloride contamination of a CSE will result...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003805
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
.... By this process, chloride ions are released and again supply the active anode front. Figure 2 shows the morphological change of rust as a function of chloride pickup ( Ref 13 ). With increasing chloride contamination in rust, flaky and large-grained rusts are formed, resulting in the spallation of rust...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02a.a0006512
EISBN: 978-1-62708-207-5
... of the part. Assessing contaminant level is best done through observation of dye bath performance on the line or in the lab. Chloride contamination can increase galvanic activity and damage parts. Phosphates as low as 25 ppm can reduce dyeing efficiencies dramatically; at 50 ppm the dye can stop...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004211
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... alkaline water applications ( Ref 5 ). An important consideration when using stainless steels is that many of the conventional austenitic stainless steels (300-series) will pit or suffer SCC in the presence of chlorides and water to a varying degree, depending on other species such as oxygen and sulfides...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003812
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
.... This assumption is mistaken. The grease will react with the HNO 3 to form gas bubbles, which collect on the surface of the workpiece and interfere with passivation. Also, contamination of the passivating solution (particularly with high levels of chlorides) can cause flash attack, which results in a gray...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001817
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
.... A problem with an airborne corrodent occurred in one case in which packing boxes became contaminated with calcium chloride from road-deicing and dust-control operations. The corrodent washed over stainless steel condenser tubes, causing ferric chloride pitting, which perforated the tubes before they were...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02.a0001083
EISBN: 978-1-62708-162-7
... sodium chloride contaminant at the center of a micropore To obtain pore-free 100% density material such as that produced by ingot metallurgy, the BE method must use chloride-free titanium powder ( Ref 20 ). One source for such powder is commercially pure titanium ingot material or machine turnings...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003553
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... in a given environment. Stress-corrosion cracks ordinarily undergo extensive branching and proceed in a general direction perpendicular to the stresses contributing to their initiation and propagation. Figure 1(a) shows transgranular, branched chloride SCC in a specimen of type 304 stainless steel...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004204
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... corrosion rates. However, chloride ions (Cl − ), either from the insulation material itself or from airborne or waterborne contaminants, tend to break down the passivity locally and initiate pitting corrosion. If penetration by acidic airborne or waterborne contaminants of sulfur or nitrogen oxides...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001245
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... ·6H 2 O 225 to 400 … 300 Nickel sulfamate, Ni (SO 3 NH 2 ) 2 … 300 to 450 … Nickel chloride, NiCl 2 ·6H 2 O 30 to 60 0 to 30 35 Boric acid, H 3 BO 3 30 to 45 30 to 45 45 Operating conditions Temperature, °C 44 to 66 32 to 60 54 Agitation Air or mechanical Air...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004170
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... and alkali ions that can induce or assist corrosion of most metals, including gold. Consider how a hearing aid is in direct contact with the human body. Perspiration (a source of chloride and humidity) and water splash can cause failures of the microelectronics if contamination is present and the packaging...