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chemical equilibrium

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005402
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
...). This diagram provides the complementary information to that shown in Fig. 14(a) . While the former diagram presents the compositions of the phases in equilibrium with each other at different temperatures, the latter shows the chemical potentials of zinc, μ Zn , for the co-existing phases as a function...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005189
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... (for example, by heat treatment). This article introduces the fundamental concepts of chemical thermodynamics and chemical kinetics in describing presolidification phenomena. Thermodynamics defines the most stable chemical system (equilibrium system) that can be produced, given a set of starting...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001317
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... catalyst powder processing catalyst preparation chemical activity chemical process extrusion honeycombing impregnation inert carriers ion exchange precipitation spray drying tableting A CATALYST is a substance that accelerates the rate of a chemical reaction toward equilibrium without...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001283
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... examination of the chemical equilibrium aspects of the reaction, as well as the fluid dynamic aspects of the reactor system, to improve process efficiency. Many computational fluid-dynamic codes are now being used to design reactors that maximize the possible yields from a given reaction. These codes account...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001284
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... concept that it is given its own name, the chemical potential (μ i ). Thus, equilibrium is reached when: (Eq 7) μ i α = μ i β for each component, i , in the system. When a system is not at equilibrium, the thermodynamic driving force to restore equilibrium is: (Eq 8) Δ μ = μ...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005686
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
... influenced by time, temperature, surface-area-to-volume ratio, extraction medium, and the phase equilibrium of the material. The phase equilibrium of a material controls the relative amounts of amorphous and crystalline phases present. For the amorphous phase, the glass transition temperature ( T g...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001285
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... thermal equilibrium because the average electron energies are much higher than the ion energies. Consequently, thermodynamic calculations cannot reliably predict the product of a PECVD reaction ( Ref 13 ). As with thermal CVD reactors, PECVD systems can be either the hot-wall type, in which the reactor...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003217
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... by the increased thickness of the coating ( Fig. 2 ). Fig. 2 Corrosion losses of hot-dip coatings in the industrial environment of Bethlehem, PA Zn-5Al alloy coating is near the eutectic point in the aluminum-zinc equilibrium phase diagram. Steel sheet coated with alloy coatings near...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006263
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
... Abstract This article provides a detailed discussion on the heat treatment processes for titanium and titanium alloys. These processes are age hardening, solution treatment, aging, and annealing. The article illustrates the characteristics of equilibrium phase diagrams that are important for...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005212
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... Abstract This article illustrates equilibrium phase diagram for the aluminum-silicon system showing metastable extensions of the liquidus and solidus lines. It describes the classification and microstructure of the aluminum-silicon eutectic. The article presents the theories of solidification...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003085
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... commercial applications, thus improving product predictability. This article describes different equilibrium phase diagrams (unary, binary, and ternary) and microstructures, description terms, and general principles of reading alloy phase diagrams. Further, the article discusses plotting schemes; areas in a...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005926
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... Fig. 1 . Fig. 1 Equilibrium curves for the formation of scale (FeO and Fe 3 O 4 ) when heating iron in a CO-CO 2 atmosphere at different temperatures The aforementioned reactions will proceed until equilibrium is established. These reactions progress at a rate depending on time...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005215
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... solid phases that accompany the solidification of alloys does not reach equilibrium, and uniform chemical potential is not attained within all phases of the as-cast alloy. Diffusion, typically diffusion of solute in the primary solid solution, is the rate-limiting step in the redistribution of solute...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 27 April 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v03.a0006223
EISBN: 978-1-62708-163-4
... Gibbs the first American Ph.D. in engineering in 1863, and he spent his entire career at Yale. Between 1876 and 1878, Gibbs wrote a series of papers on the graphical analysis of multiphase chemical systems. These were eventually published together in a monograph titled On the Equilibrium of...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005217
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... Abstract Thermal analysis is a classical method of determining phase diagrams and can be used to analyze the deviation from solidification under equilibrium conditions. This article discusses the use of thermal analysis in industrial processes and in research. It describes the theoretical basis...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006277
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
... Abstract This article describes the integration of thermodynamic modeling, mobility database, and phase-transformation crystallography into phase-field modeling and its combination with transformation texture modeling to predict phase equilibrium, phase transformation, microstructure evolution...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003124
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... strengthening mechanisms on the physical and mechanical properties of non-heat treatable and heat treatable aluminum alloys. It describes the use of the aluminum alloy phase diagram in determining the melting temperature, solidification path, equilibrium phases, and explains the effect of alloying element in...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006629
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
.... Dulski, Classical Wet Analytical Chemistry, Materials Characterization , Volume 10, ASM Handbook , ASM International, 1986, p 161–180. Entire tomes of work have been devoted to the topic of chemical equilibria. Indeed, the position of equilibrium of chemical reactions can have far-reaching effects...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003052
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... a description of the comminution process (wet and dry milling methods), it discusses batching and mixing operations and granulation methods. The article also deals with the effect of process variables and the steps involved in chemical synthesis, including preparation from solution and gas-phase...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001311
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... equilibrium point. The maximum coating weight is obtained in about 2 min in the low-temperature bath and in about 10 min in the two other baths ( Fig. 13 ). Fig. 13 Weight of conversion coating as a function of immersion time. See Table 5 . Results of extensive wire-drawing experiments ( Table 6...