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chemical brightening

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001308
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... coating of aluminum. These include abrasive blast cleaning, barrel finishing, polishing, buffing, satin finishing, chemical cleaning, chemical brightening, electrolytic brightening, chemical etching, alkaline etching, acid etching, chemical conversion coating, electroplating, immersion plating...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001247
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... Abstract Electrodeposits of cadmium are used to protect steel and cast iron against corrosion. This article provides an overview of the surface preparation of, and brighteners used in, cyanide baths. It focuses on the anode system, current density, deposition rates, and bath temperature of...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001314
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... reduced oxide, sometimes followed by a flash pickle to brighten; and black or dark-colored surface requiring removal of adherent oxide film or scale. The article also reviews specialized pickling operations of nickel alloys and various cleaning and finishing operations, including grinding, polishing...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001310
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... Abstract Surface treatments are applied to magnesium parts primarily to improve their appearance and corrosion resistance. Mechanical and chemical cleaning methods are used singly or in combination, depending on the specific application and product involved to ensure repetitive reliability...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003244
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... polish. The results of chemical polishing are similar to those of electropolishing. They vary from an etched specimen surface that has been macrosmoothed but not brightened to a bright dipped surface that has been brightened but not macrosmoothed. The procedure for electrolytic etching is basically...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003221
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
..., inhibited 60–71 140–160 2–4 2 Chemical brightening H 3 PO 4 and HNO 3 88–110 190–230 1 2 –5 3 Desmutting HNO 3 , 25–35 vol% Room Room 2 4 Anodizing H 2 SO 4 , 15 wt% 21–25 70–75 5–60 5 Sealing Water, (pH 5.5–6.5) 100 212 5–20 The primary differences...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001311
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... oxidation resistance through the use of polishing, buffing, and wire brushing operations. The article also covers a wide range of surface modification and coating processes, including ion implantation, diffusion, chemical and physical vapor deposition, plating, anodizing, and chemical conversion coatings as...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003215
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... Abstract Copper can be electrodeposited from numerous electrolytes. Cyanide and pyrophosphate alkalines, along with sulfate and fluoborate acid baths, are the primary electrolytes used in copper plating. This article provides information on the chemical composition, plating baths, and operating...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001309
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... application requirements for appearance and corrosion resistance. This article describes cleaning, finishing, and coating processes for copper and copper alloys. These processes include pickling and bright dipping, abrasive blast cleaning, chemical and electrochemical cleaning, mass finishing, polishing and...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001225
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... Abstract Molten salt baths are anhydrous, fused chemical baths used at elevated temperatures for a variety of industrial cleaning applications. This article discusses their applications in paint stripping, polymer removal, casting cleaning, glass removal, and plasma/flame spray removal. It...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05b.a0006062
EISBN: 978-1-62708-172-6
... severity depends on proximity to pulping (less corrosive) and bleaching areas (more corrosive). Pulp is brightened by bleaching in a multistage, acid-alkali-acid process for chemical pulp, and a single-stage, peroxide or hydrosulfite process for mechanical pulp ( Fig 7 ). Fig. 7 Bleach plant...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003815
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... resistance of anodized aluminum in contact with foods, pharmaceuticals, and chemicals. aluminum alloys atmospheric corrosion corrosion corrosion fatigue erosion-corrosion exfoliation corrosion filiform corrosion galvanic corrosion intergranular corrosion microstructure nonmetallic building...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001281
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... coatings depends on the condition of the base metal before anodizing. Dull etching decreases luster; bright etching, chemical or electrolytic brightening, and buffing increase luster, either diffuse or specular. Most of the aluminum used in architectural applications is anodized. Increase abrasion...
Book Chapter

By A. Sato
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001248
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... replenished by periodic additions. Because the chemical compositions of brighteners are proprietary, the suppliers specify concentrations and control procedures. Agitation is recommended in acid chloride baths to achieve practical operating current densities. Solution circulation is recommended in barrel...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001250
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... many useful inorganic and organic chemical compounds because it is amphoteric. It has the largest melting point to boiling point range (from 232 to 2370 °C, or 450 to 4300 °F) of any metal. In conventional metallurgical applications, evaporation from a pot of liquid tin does not occur. Tin is used in a...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001253
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... industrial applications of gold plating. The article reviews factors affecting the dragout of gold solution. decorative plating electrolytes gold plating industrial gold plating GOLD PLATING is similar to other metal plating in most chemical and electrochemical ways. Gold differs from other...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001245
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... salvage or build up worn or undersized parts, to modify magnetic properties, to prepare surfaces for enameling or for organic coating, to function as diffusion barriers in electronic applications and for other purposes. Engineering applications exist in the chemical, nuclear, telecommunications, consumer...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001258
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... alloy is the significant saving in the cost of metal, because up to 35% of the nickel is replaced by iron. An additional advantage is that iron entering the plating solution through chemical dissolution of steel substrates, which is highly detrimental in straight nickel plating solutions, is readily...
Book Chapter

By Alan Blair
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001252
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... in a barrel). It is possible to produce fully bright deposits that require no further buffing or polishing. This is achieved by including a brightening agent in the solution formula, (one of several sulfur-bearing organic compounds, or selenium or antimony added as soluble salts). Antimony containing...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001242
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... structure, impart leveling characteristics, and act as brighteners. However, decomposition products from an excessive additive concentration cause stress and brittle deposits. Thus, for quality deposits, additives should be added to the bath on an as-consumed basis. The chemical composition of acid...