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chemical attack

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05b.a0006037
EISBN: 978-1-62708-172-6
... bonding, cracking, chemical attack, and moisture that affect the polymeric floor coatings on concrete. abrasion resistance chemical resistance coating failures physical properties polymer chemistries thermal properties POLYMERIC FLOOR COATINGS (also called polymeric flooring systems...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003843
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... and other embedded metals, chlorides, carbonation, galvanic corrosion, chemical attack, alkali-aggregate reaction, abrasion, erosion, and cavitation as well as many other factors. The article addresses the durability of concrete by two approaches, namely, the prescriptive approach and the performance...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003217
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... attack that occurs when a metal is immersed in or sprayed with an aqueous solution of chromic acid, chromium salts such as sodium or potassium chromate or dichromate, hydrofluoric acid or hydrofluoric acid salts, phosphoric acid, or other mineral acids. The chemical attack causes dissolution of some...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001310
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... Chloride contamination 3% max … Soft coating Current density 0.5–5 A/dm 2 (5–50 A/ft 2 ) Attack at liquid level Pitting or burning Temperature 71–82 °C (160–180 °F) No coating No problem HAE Potassium hydroxide 105–190 g/L (14–25 oz/gal) Pitting; burning; nonuniformity Pitting...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001276
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
..., harden, crack, soften, or otherwise deteriorate and become unfit for service. Product storage and shipping requirements should be anticipated in the beginning stages of design, so that a proper preservative is selected to protect the metallic units of the assembly without attacking the nonmetallic...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05b.a0006041
EISBN: 978-1-62708-172-6
... fluoroethylene unit also protects the usually weak vinyl ether both sterically and chemically from attack from acids and bases ( Ref 2 ). The FEVE fluorourethane coatings have been used to protect bridges and other large structures in Japan for over 30 years. Several case studies have been reviewed, and it has...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05b.a0006044
EISBN: 978-1-62708-172-6
... protective and marine settings; and in a variety of other applications. One unique application is in art conservation, in which coatings with good clarity and nonyellowing properties are used to protect valuable artwork and can be removed if necessary with solvents that do not attack the artwork ( Ref 8 , 9...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001223
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
..., water-sensitive, or chemical-sensitive parts Removal of organic materials such as plating stopoffs, marking crayons, or soldering flux Cleaning of precision items in a succession of steps in which the work is first cleaned in nonpolar solvent to remove oil Temporary general cleaning where the...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003028
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... molecular weight counterparts, have good resistance to chemical degradation. However, polyesters, polyamides, and polyacetals are readily hydrolyzed to produce derivatives of these reactants ( Ref 18 ). Polyolefins, such as PE and PP, are slowly attacked by oxidizing acids such as nitric acid, and by...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003816
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... organic chemicals. However, copper is susceptible to more rapid attack in oxidizing acids, oxidizing heavy-metal salts, sulfur, ammonia (NH 3 ), and some sulfur and NH 3 compounds. Resistance to acid solution depends mainly on the severity of oxidizing conditions in the solution. Reaction of copper with...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003821
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... hydrochloric, and some are extremely resistant to the chloride-induced phenomena of pitting, crevice attack, and stress-corrosion cracking (to which the stainless steels are susceptible). Nickel alloys are also among the few metallic materials able to cope with hot hydrofluoric acid. The conditions where...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003105
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
..., the effectiveness of the cathodic protection in arresting corrosion can be measured by a simple, nondestructive electrical measurement. THE CORROSION PROCESS in concrete is such that it tends to create conditions that increase the rate of attack. This phenomenon is related to the fact that the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006629
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
..., the fusion reactions are generally carried out in metal crucibles. Care must be taken to select a crucible that is not susceptible to attack by the flux or the resultant fusion product(s). There is also some danger in losing the analyte due to volatilization under the high-temperature conditions...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001308
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... critical when processing aluminum, because the metal is susceptible to etching by both acids and alkalis, and because gas generated during chemical attack can build up pressure in the barrel and cause serious accidents. Barrels must be vented when processing aluminum. Compounds that are nearly neutral (pH...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003137
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... saline solutions, alkaline solutions, and organic chemicals. However, copper is susceptible to more rapid attack in oxidizing acids, oxidizing heavy-metal salts, sulfur, ammonia (NH 3 ), and some sulfur and NH 3 compounds. Resistance to acid solution depends mainly on the severity of oxidizing...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006783
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... even to generalized uniform chemical attack—described in the section “Uniform Corrosion”—in which the anodes and cathodes of the cells are numerous, small, and close together. The analysis of corrosion failures and the development of suitable corrective measures require not only a basic understanding...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006794
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... Abstract Corrosive wear is defined as surface damage caused by wear in a corrosive environment, involving combined attacks from wear and corrosion. This article begins with a discussion on several typical forms of corrosive wear encountered in industry, followed by a discussion on mechanisms...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003810
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
..., are reviewed. The article provides information on classes of the cast irons based on corrosion resistance. It describes the various forms of corrosion in cast irons, including graphitic corrosion, fretting corrosion, pitting and crevice corrosion, intergranular attack, erosion-corrosion...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003848
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... manufacturers for the duration of extended temperature range. Sealing capabilities of elastomers are usually dependent on a variety of factors encountered during service: Swell and/or chemical attack can significantly narrow the acceptable temperature range in process media. High temperatures...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003827
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... chemicals in the electrolytes may not attack the beryllium or aluminum-beryllium composites, there is the potential for galvanic corrosion, as described in the previous paragraph. Atmospheric contamination is the fourth major condition that can lead to corrosion of beryllium or aluminum-beryllium...