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chemical analyses

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003803
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
...Abstract Abstract Archaeometallurgists use metallography to reveal and interpret the microstructures of objects, in conjunction with the results of their chemical analyses and microanalyses. This article describes a number of special problems that occur while performing metallographic analyses...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003252
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... in the next section. Characteristic x-ray escape the sample from the entire interaction volume ( Fig. 4 ). As a result, the spatial resolution for x-ray microanalysis is on the order of several micrometers. It is a common misconception that SEMs can perform chemical analyses with the same resolution...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003460
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... to ensure that the part was processed as required. Fracture surfaces should be removed and analyzed using both optical and scanning electron microscopy in order to determine failure initiation sites, crack growth directions, environmental influences, defects, and failure modes. Chemical analyses...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003251
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
..., and most inorganic chemical compounds. This article describes the operating principles and types of XRD analyses, along with information about the threshold sensitivity and precision, limitations, sample requirements, and capabilities of related techniques. The necessary instrumentation for XRD analyses...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006657
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
...Abstract Abstract This article discusses the basic principles of and chemical effects in Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), covering various factors affecting the quantitative analyses of AES. The discussion covers instrumentation and sophisticated electronics typically used in AES for data...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 August 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01a.a0006340
EISBN: 978-1-62708-179-5
... and 11.3 J (8.9 and 8.3 ft ⋅ lbf) at room temperature and −20 °C (−5 °F), respectively. Chemical composition of casting in cases A and B analyses Table 9 Chemical composition of casting in cases A and B analyses Element Chemical composition, wt% Case A Case B C 3.93 3.62 S 0.006...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005686
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
.... The article describes infrared (IR) and thermal analyses that are used extensively to fingerprint polymeric materials. It also presents a discussion on the chemical characterization and risk assessment of extracts. Background information on risk assessments of extracts is also included. The four basic steps...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001726
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
..., effluents, leachates, acids, bases, chemical reagents Wet analytical chemistry, electrochemistry, ultraviolet/visible absorption spectroscopy, and molecular fluorescence spectroscopy can generally be adapted to perform the bulk analyses listed. Most of techniques listed for inorganic solids can be used...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003250
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
...Abstract Abstract The overall chemical composition of metals and alloys is most commonly determined by X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and optical emission spectroscopy (OES), and combustion and inert gas fusion analysis. This article provides information on the capabilities, uses, detection threshold...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006766
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
...Abstract Abstract Identification of alloys using quantitative chemical analysis is an essential step during a metallurgical failure analysis process. There are several methods available for quantitative analysis of metal alloys, and the analyst should carefully approach selection of the method...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003529
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... of hydrocarbon contamination ( Fig. 9 ), as well as a shallow layer of radiation damage that will break chemical bonds in the material struck by the electron beam. These two factors will prevent accurate identification of chemical compounds on the surface by subsequent surface chemical analyses. Therefore...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003253
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... used to obtain surface analyses with chemical bonding sensitivity. References References 1. Jenkins R. , Gould R. , and Gedcke D. , Quantitative X-Ray Spectrometry , Dekker , 1981 , p 16 2. Materials Characterization , Vol 10 , ASM Handbook , ASM International...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001772
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
... evaporation can be analyzed chemically by coupling to the microscope a time-of-flight mass spectrometer of single-particle sensitivity, known as the atom probe (AP). This article describes the principles, sample preparation, and quantitative analysis of FIM. It also provides information on the principles...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02.a0001115
EISBN: 978-1-62708-162-7
... by mass spectroscopy for metallic elements and Leco combustion method for carbon, oxygen, nitrogen, and hydrogen are listed in Table 2 . Ratios higher than those shown in Table 1 , and ratios for other metals, have been reported ( Ref 7 ); however, they were not accompanied by chemical analyses. In fact...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006762
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... are compiled, compared, and interpreted. Occasionally, a customer might ask only for the raw data, but typically, some level of analysis of the information is requested. Although individual tests and analyses are discrete (for example, hardness testing, chemical analysis, metallography, and fractography...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006671
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... electron microscope (AEM). The electron beam can be localized to an area, line, or spot to perform local qualitative or quantitative chemical analyses. Both TEM/XRS and AEM can be used to analyze cross-sectioned interfaces down to nearly atomic levels. Elemental maps can be produced that relate directly...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02.a0001069
EISBN: 978-1-62708-162-7
... In reporting chemical analyses by the use of instruments such as spectrograph, x-ray, and atomic absorption, copper may be indicated as balance. In reporting chemical analyses obtained by wet methods, zinc may be indicated as balance on those alloys with over 2% Zn. Applications Typical Use Terminal...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001730
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
... systems, namely, the continuum-source background correction and Zeeman background correction. It also provides a list of applications of conventional AAS equipment, which includes most of the types of samples brought to laboratories for elemental analyses. atomic absorption spectroscopy atomizers...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003526
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... and requirements. Piping and pressure vessel finite element analyses are primarily used in the design and upgrade phases of systems. Before any owner of a power plant, refinery, paper mill, chemical plant, or power piping or pressurized process system accepts delivery, analyses showing code compliance...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 19
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1996
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v19.a0002394
EISBN: 978-1-62708-193-1
... and the type of analyses conducted previously is the a priori assumption that a crack is present. Stress analysis, fatigue analysis, corrosion, creep, and so forth do not assume the immediate presence of a crack. Many of these analyses do not consider the presence of a crack until failure occurs. Fracture...