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channel-energy conversion

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006637
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... this condition. This is followed by a section on equipment used in RBS analysis. Channel-energy conversion, energy-depth conversion, and separation of the dechanneling background are then discussed as the main steps of RBS data analysis. The article also discusses the applications of RBS—including composition...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 09 June 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04c.a0005908
EISBN: 978-1-62708-167-2
..., and zinc, the channel induction furnace, or CIF ( Fig. 7 ), usually is preferred due to its much higher efficiency in melting nonferrous metals. Fig. 7 Principle sketch and final energy demands of a channel induction furnace. Frequency, 50–70 Hz. Specific energy demands: aluminum, 410–450 kWh/t...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005196
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... concept is the fact that only the small amount of metal in the inductor channel receives energy through the surrounding coil. This necessitates superheating the metal in the loop and pumping it out of the channel into the main vessel, where it mixes with the cold metal and heats it by conduction...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001775
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
.... Figure 8 illustrates conversion from channeling spectrum to depth distribution of defect, representing channeled backscattering spectra of 2.4-MeV He + ions from single-crystal silicon prebombarded with high dose H + at various energies. Figure 9 shows a direct translation from energy spectra...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 09 June 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04c.a0005895
EISBN: 978-1-62708-167-2
... of the induction crucible furnace Fig. 2 Design and principle of the channel induction furnace. Source: RWE Energie AG The first technically feasible induction furnaces were based on the principle of the channel furnace. Milestones were the first patent obtained by de Ferranti in 1887...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003173
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... furnaces are channel furnaces and coreless furnaces. Channel Induction Furnaces In channel induction furnaces ( Fig. 1 ), a small channel of molten metal surrounds the inductor coil. Only the small amount of metal in the inductor channel receives enough energy to be heated, and it is pumped out...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006454
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... location include zone location and computed location. Zone location places the source within a broad area by paying attention to which channel detects the AE event first. Computed location places the source precisely, by calculating from the relative arrival times of the AE wave at several sensors. Wave...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 August 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01a.a0006337
EISBN: 978-1-62708-179-5
... of specialized cupolas such as cokeless cupola and plasma-fired cupola. Melting in iron foundries is a major application of induction furnaces. The article describes the operations of two induction furnaces: the channel induction furnace and the induction crucible furnace. It explains the teapot principle...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003755
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... system. It discusses the contrasts mechanisms used for imaging and analyzing materials in the SEM. These include the topographic contrast, compositional contrast, and electron channeling pattern and orientation contrast. Special instrumentation and accessory equipment used at elevated pressures...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001729
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
... transported by a carrier gas flow at approximately 1 L/min. Fig. 2 Structure of ICP plasma torch. Careful design of the torch enables the sample carrier gas to penetrate the base of the plasma so that the sample passes through a channel in the plasma central axis. The hot plasma is then toroidal...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005924
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... frequency range. Solid-state power supplies and the RF oscillator tube power supplies have considerable differences in efficiency, as shown in Table 1 . The lower-frequency, solid-state power supplies are more efficient in energy conversion. The RF oscillator tube has a filament that consumes energy being...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 24
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 June 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v24.a0006558
EISBN: 978-1-62708-290-7
... channel geometries only possible with 3D printing. These channels can be formed in arbitrary 3D circuitous paths throughout a structure. Although these alloys in both research efforts regarding low-temperature metals tend to have higher conductivity relative to conductive inks, the electrical performance...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 20
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1997
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v20.a0002494
EISBN: 978-1-62708-194-8
... plating, anodizing, mechanical plating, dipping (painting), conversion coating, solution coating, passivation, electrophoretic plating, electropolishing, sol-gel coating, electrocoating Avoid recesses, holes, channels, and similar features that could trap materials Blasting, peening, grinding...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005267
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... of the die above or below the established temperature. Metal overflows are often used to heat die areas surrounding the parameters of castings that have thin sections far from the main runner. This method of local heating helps to fill thin sections and to improve casting finish. Conversely, water channels...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14b.a0005178
EISBN: 978-1-62708-186-3
... 32 1 1 4 1017 steel 30 s 1 min, 2 s 7 s 2 s 93 97 71 5×127 3 16 1018 steel 27 s 1 min, 15 s 5 s 3 s 89 96 40 13×228 1 2 1018 steel 3 min, 54 s 6 min, 15 s 18 s 3 s 99 99 83 150 6 Channel 45 s 2 min, 54 s 23 s 6 s 89 96 74...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001736
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
... advantage relative to the performance of a single-channel detector is realized, because many frequencies are detected simultaneously. Relative to a single-channel detector, a multichannel detector can increase the signal-to-noise ratio proportional to the square root of the number of individual spectral...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006677
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... a thin film or can reveal interesting contrast as ions pass through the channeling directions of crystalline materials. Also, there are third-party detectors designed to detect photons ( Ref 36 ) that sometimes are generated from the sample atoms as the ion beam rasters over the sample...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006685
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
..., these detectors usually incorporate image intensifiers that increase sensitivity. The benefit of the multichannel detector is known as Fellgett’s advantage or the multiplex advantage. This signal-to-noise ratio advantage or time advantage relative to the performance of a single-channel detector is realized...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006657
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... plates in this configuration enable the anode to be divided into an appropriate number of channels (eight, in this illustration) and enables simultaneous detection of electrons in multiple energy channels. A spectrum, EN ( E ) as a function of E , is generated by sweeping the bias applied to the outer...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005236
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... as mesosegregations are also predicted at a smaller length scale. These variations are caused by the development of equiaxed grains in preferred zones, leading to instability of the segregation field that further develops with the propagation of the mushy zone. It is interesting to observe the formation of channels...