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cementite

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 20
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1997
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v20.a0002461
EISBN: 978-1-62708-194-8
... of these factors in both theoretical and practical terms, with particular focus on the role of microstructure in various irons. These include bainite, pearlite, ferfite, martensite, austenite, ferrite-pearlite, ferrite-cementite, ferrite-martensite, graphite, and cementite. The article discusses the evolution...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 August 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01a.a0006295
EISBN: 978-1-62708-179-5
.... Source: Ref 12 Fig. 13 Isopleth Fe-C sections at 3 mass% Si in the (a) stable and (b) metastable diagrams showing the composition-temperature domains for liquid (L), ferrite (α), austenite (γ), graphite (G), and cementite. Source: Ref 25 , 26 Fig. 14 Evolution of the temperature...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003090
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
...% picral etch. 320×. Courtesy of A.O. Benscoter, Lehigh University Fig. 4 Microstructure of an alloy white cast iron. White constituent is cementite and the darker constituent is martensite with some retained austenite. 4% picral etch. 250×. Courtesy of A.O. Benscoter, Lehigh University...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003763
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
.... Can pre-etch in 2% nital for better results Uniform ferrite grain-boundary etch. Colors cementite and attacks inclusions. Reveals prior-austenite grain boundaries in martensitic low-carbon steels Modified Marshall's reagent Mix equal amounts of part A and part B; then add part C:  Part A:   5 mL...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01.a0001008
EISBN: 978-1-62708-161-0
... and the phase transformations that change the structure and properties at varying levels of carbon content. Microstructures described include pearlite, bainite, proeutectoid ferrite and cementite, ferrite-pearlite, and martensite. The article depicts some of the primary processing steps that result in ferrite...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003246
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... and complex mixtures of constituents (single or combination of two phases) that are encountered in iron-base alloys and the complex structure that is observed in these microstructures. The single-phase constituents discussed in the article include austenite, ferrite, delta ferrite, cementite, various alloy...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 August 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01a.a0006304
EISBN: 978-1-62708-179-5
... of ledeburite eutectic. (a) Lamellar eutectic with cementite as the leading phase in the edgewise a -direction. Reprinted with permission from Jernkontoret—The Swedish Steel Producers’ Association. Source: Ref 116 . (b) Rodlike eutectic in the sidewise c -direction Fig. 41 Effect of processing...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003246
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... of common and complex mixtures of constituents (single or combination of two phases) that are encountered in iron-base alloys and the complex structure that is observed in these microstructures. The single-phase constituents discussed in the article include austenite, ferrite, delta ferrite, cementite...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04a.a0005819
EISBN: 978-1-62708-165-8
..., and other elements in steel are associated. This article describes the phases of heat treated steel, and provides information on effect of temperature change and the size of carbon atoms relative to that of iron atoms during the heat treatment. bainite cementite continuous cooling transformation...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003734
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... of a monotectoid reaction. Fig. 6 (a) Pearlite nucleation. (b) Colony growth. (c) Deep-etched steel sample showing pearlite colony growth off of proeutectoid cementite plate. Source: (a) and (b) from Ref 4 , p 331, (c) from Ref 6 Fig. 7 Growth of intergranular pearlite nodules (numbered...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 27 April 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v03.a0006228
EISBN: 978-1-62708-163-4
...-carbon ferritic steel. Source: Ref 4 as published in Ref 3 Fig. 6 Equilibrium cooling of a eutectoid steel. δ ferrite, bcc; γ austenite, fcc; α ferrite, bcc; Fe 3 C, cementite. Source: Ref 3 Fig. 9 Relationship of pearlite lamellae, colonies, and nodules to prior austenite...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003765
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... (α-iron) Body-centered cubic crystal structure. Iron with elements in solid solution, which is a stable equilibrium, low-temperature phase. Soft, 80–90 HB; contributes ductility but little strength Cementite (Fe 3 C) Complex orthorhombic crystal structure. Hard, intermetallic phase, 800–1400 HV...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 August 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01a.a0006342
EISBN: 978-1-62708-179-5
... acid ((NO 2 ) 3 C 6 H 2 OH)); 25 g sodium hydroxide (NaOH); 100 mL distilled water; warm to dissolve Colors cementite (Fe 3 C) dark brown to black, depending on etching time. Three etch methods: Immerse sample in solution at 60–70 °C (140–160 °F) for 1–3 min Dip etch for 10 s to 2 min at boiling...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003723
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... δ-ferrite (δ-iron) bcc Isomorphous with α-iron; high-temperature phase; stable equilibrium phase Austenite (γ-iron) fcc Relatively soft medium-temperature phase; stable equilibrium phase Cementite (Fe 3 C) Complex orthorhombic Hard metastable phase Graphite Hexagonal Stable...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003739
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... at 400 °C (750 °F) (a) Bainite with cementite in Fe-0.478C-4.87Ni wt% alloy. (b) Bainite without cementite in Fe-0.485C-4.82Ni-1.55Si wt% alloy. Source: Ref 11 Fig. 20 Replica electron micrograph (a) showing the microstructural unit of inverse bainite comprised of a single cementite plate...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003761
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
.... For ferrite grain boundaries (more uniform than nital). Colors cementite tan. Reveals prior-austenite grain boundaries in martensitic low-carbon steels Can pre-etch in 2% nital for better results. Hold polished surface vertical in solution to avoid pitting. Add 1 mL hydrofluoric acid per 100 mL of solution...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003766
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... be added to increase etch rate. 2 g picric acid, 25 g NaOH, and 100 mL H 2 O Alkaline sodium picrate. Immerse sample in boiling solution for 1–15 min or use electrolytically at 6 V dc, 20 °C (68 °F), 30–120 s, stainless steel cathode. Colors cementite and Fe 4 W 2 C 10 g K 3 Fe(CN) 6 (potassium...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 August 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01a.a0006351
EISBN: 978-1-62708-179-5
... (a) small nodules of graphite in agglomerations and (b and c) a matrix of coarse plate martensite, retained austenite, and substantial primary carbide (cementite). (a) As-polished. Original magnification: 50×. (b) 2% nital etched. Original magnification: 100×. (c) 2% nital etched. Original magnification...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 27 April 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v03.a0006221
EISBN: 978-1-62708-163-4
... diagram with constituents in the form of cementite (Fe 3 C) and graphite (as the equilibrium form of carbon). Although cementite is strictly a metastable phase that eventually decomposes into iron and graphite, cementite is sufficiently stable over the time scales of most engineering applications...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003752
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... phosphide and cementite yellow-orange (ferrite unaffected):  For cast iron: Add HNO 3 to the stock solution to bring the pH to 2.5–3.0. Immerse 45–60s.  For low-carbon steel: Adjust pH and add 0.1 g NH 4 FHF per 100 mL of stock solution. Immerse 45–60 s to color as above.  For medium- and high-carbon steel...