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cavitating liquid jets

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006796
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... attack. (b, c) Shock wave formation. (d) Reflection wave formation. (e) Focusing and cavitation bubble formation. Source: Ref 8 Theoretical studies on single-droplet impingement show that the impact pressure, p , on the solid surface is given by p = ρ cV , where ρ is the density of the liquid...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006795
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... particle erosion. Cavitation erosion is due to the formation and collapse, within a liquid, of cavities or bubbles that contain vapor or gas or both. Liquid impingement erosion is due to impacts by liquid drops or jets. Solid impingement erosion is due to impacts by solid particles. Impingement also...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003054
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... resistance, and other properties. This article discusses the fundamentals of sintering and its effects on pore structures and particle density. It addresses some of the more common sintering methods, including solid-state, liquid-phase, and gas pressure sintering, and presents alternative processes such as...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001226
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... Acoustics, University of Mississippi Temperatures inside a caviting bubble can be extremely high, with pressures up to 500 atm. The implosion event, when it occurs near a hard surface, changes the bubble into a jet about one-tenth the bubble size, which travels at speeds up to 400 km/hr toward the...
Book Chapter

By Peter J. Blau
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003242
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... or lapping machine Impact 2-body Repetitive “hammer”-on-flat Impingement, liquid and solid Liquid jet aimed at the specimen, gas jet with entrained particles, spinning specimens through a gravity-fed stream of particles, centrifugal particle “slinger” apparatus Cavitation erosion...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006794
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
..., slurry-jet erosion, and cavitation-corrosion tests ( Fig. 4 ), which simulate different corrosive wear conditions. Figure 4(a) schematically illustrates a pin-on-disc tester in accordance with ASTM G 99 ( Ref 27 ) for evaluating abrasion or sliding wear, which can be conducted in a corrosive solution...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006789
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... Abrasive wear by hard particles Fracture/deformation produced by hard, sharp particles or protuberances Solid-particle erosion Fracture/deformation from particle indents Cavitation erosion Fracture produced by impinging liquid jets Slurry erosion Fracture (from hard substances) conjoint with...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 24
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 June 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v24.9781627082907
EISBN: 978-1-62708-290-7
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005420
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... must be incorporated from other models, such as heat transfer from impinging liquid jets ( Ref 68 ) and fluid feeding into the mushy zone ( Ref 55 ). A third strategy simulates the entire casting, treating the mass and momentum equations of the liquid and mushy regions with a mixed velocity-pressure...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... microstructure. Thus, synthesis and subsequent processing methods play an important role in the control and optimization of properties and service performance. Synthesis techniques utilized to date have covered a broad spectrum of vapor, liquid, and solid-state approaches ( Ref 1 ). Vapor methods include those...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005238
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... allows pore cavitation to separate the residual liquid film between the dendrites: (Eq 30) ε ˙ ≥ 1 R [ λ 2 2 ‖ ∇ T ‖ 180 μ 1 ρ L ρ s ( p m − p C )                     − υ T ρ s − ρ L ρ s H...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05a.9781627081719
EISBN: 978-1-62708-171-9
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003822
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... environments. These specific environments include anhydrous methanol, nitrogen tetroxide (N 2 O 4 ), red-fuming nitric acid, liquid or solid cadmium, or liquid mercury. The second class of titanium alloys, including the aerospace titanium alloys, has been found to be susceptible to several additional...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003971
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... 4000 B.C., a useful method became available for purifying metals through chemical reactions in the liquid state. Later, in the Copper Age, it was found that the hammering of metal brought about desirable increases in strength (a phenomenon now known as strain hardening). The quest for strength spurred...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005318
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... liquid metal reaches velocities within the range of 20 to 60 m/s (65 to 200 ft/s). The erosion rate is a function of gating and casting techniques and properties of the die material. The impingement velocity and angle of molten metal jet against a core or die face at the gate inlet can be reduced by...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003816
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... phase. Nickel appears to alter the corrosion characteristics of the β phase to provide greater resistance to dealloying and cavitation-erosion in most liquids. For C63200 and perhaps C95800, quench-and-temper treatments may yield even greater resistance to dealloying. Alloy C95700, a high-manganese (11...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001303
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... protection. Dry-resin polymers can be applied (by fusion bonding) to iron castings for many of the same applications for which liquid organic coatings are used. Generally, the fused coatings are thick and can be applied very rapidly—often in minutes; in contrast, several hours are required for the...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005260
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... are typical applications. Other major uses for permanent mold castings include internal and accessory parts for reciprocating and jet-type aviation engines; missiles; forms for concrete; textile machine parts; electric motor housings; portable and hand tool components; support members for outdoor...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003052
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... effective in the modification of grain growth by several means, depending on whether or not a liquid phase is formed during sintering and whether or not the sintering aid is soluble in that liquid. If the sintering aid is reasonably insoluble, or if no liquid forms, the additive may act simply as a...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005330
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... transitions between features promote laminar flow of the liquid metal into the casting and also improve the mechanical performance of the part by reducing stress raisers. An additional advantage of these smooth transitions is that designs for castability and for finite-element stress analysis often converge...