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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003584
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... of charge transfer taking place at the electrode interface within the double layer and of mass transport at the vicinity of the electrode surface are discussed. The article describes the corrosion processes, which involve anodic and cathodic reactions at specific electrode sites. Some experimental methods...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003579
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... and the Nernst equation. It describes galvanic cell reactions and corrosion reactions in an aqueous solution in an electrochemical cell. The article explores the most common cathodic reactions encountered in metallic corrosion in aqueous systems. The reactions included are proton reduction, water reduction...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003578
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
...Abstract Abstract Electrochemical, or electrode, reactions occur with charge transfer between neutral or ionic reactants and a conducting material called the electrode. This article discusses cathodic reactions that result in reduction and anodic reactions that result in oxidation. It reviews...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003583
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
.... A corrosion process can be controlled by the electronic conductivity of passive films when the cathodic reaction occurs on the surface of the film and by activation control of corrosion. Passivation becomes thermodynamically possible when the corrosion potential exceeds the potential corresponding...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004170
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
...Abstract Abstract This article discusses the influence of the materials, design, package type, and environment on corrosion in microelectronics. It describes the common sources and mechanisms of corrosion in microelectronics, including anodic, cathodic, and electrolytic reactions resulting...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003697
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
...Abstract Abstract Cathodic protection is an electrochemical means of corrosion control in which the oxidation reaction in a galvanic cell is concentrated at the anode, which suppresses corrosion of the cathode in the same cell. This article provides a detailed discussion on the fundamentals...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02a.a0006483
EISBN: 978-1-62708-207-5
... No Reversible equilibrium voltage 1.20 η aa No Anode reaction overvoltage 0.50 η ca No Anode concentration overvoltage 0.02 V bub No Gas bubble voltage drop 0.05 V el No Electrolyte voltage drop 1.50 η ca No Cathode overvoltage 0.08 V cc Yes Cathode voltage drop 0.40...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003604
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
..., and electrochemical refining, that consume energy from external sources. Each of these processes consists of an electrochemical cell with an anode, cathode, and conductive medium or electrolyte. Each of these processes involves electrochemical oxidation and reduction reactions. The purpose of this introduction...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003709
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... the cathode in an electric field. Corrosion In its broadest sense, corrosion is the deterioration of a metallic or nonmetallic material by reaction with its environment involving processes other than strictly mechanical or thermal processes. Applied to metallic materials, corrosion is the deterioration...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003549
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... into two reactions: the oxidation of zinc and the reduction of hydrogen ions: (Eq 3) Oxidation (anodic reaction) Zn  → Zn 2 + + 2 e (Eq 4) Reduction (cathodic reaction)  2 H + + 2 e → H 2 An oxidation or anodic reaction is indicated by an increase...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005683
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
... with water, and the reactions do not necessarily require unbound oxygen.) The reduction (cathodic) reactions consume the electrons liberated by the oxidation reactions. The two most common cathodic reactions in aqueous electrolytes, such as human body fluids, are reduction of dissolved oxygen and reduction...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003601
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
..., that disfavors the formation of cathodes on the anode metal and minimizes the potential for direct reaction of metal with the electrolyte. Strategies for minimizing this type of corrosion usually involve alloying of the anode with metals that polarize it and thus lower corrosion rates under open-circuit...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006782
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... in the environment, prevent or reduce corrosion without significant reaction with the components of the environment. Chemical treatment or inhibitors can be used for corrosion control in aqueous environments. Inhibitors are classified as anodic inhibitors, cathodic inhibitors, and mixed inhibitors. Anodic inhibitors...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003715
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... electrodes. The processes governing corrosion: These are electrode processes, involving oxidation and reduction reactions (or anodic or cathodic reactions). The corroding system does not produce any net charge and, thus, the electrons produced by the electrochemical oxidation of the metal (the anodic...
Book Chapter

By R.G. Kelly
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003613
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
..., the solution within pits and crevices tends to be acidic and highly concentrated. In contrast, the lap-joint environment becomes neither concentrated nor acidic. This difference is due to the lack of an external cathodic reaction. In traditional pits and crevices, the majority of the cathodic reaction (e.g...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003644
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... anodic and cathodic reactions take place in constant change of location and time of the individual processes. In this concept, it is not necessary to postulate the presence of local anodes and cathodes for corrosion to occur. Nevertheless, in later years it has often been stated that corrosion occurs...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003105
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... at the anodic sites: Fe 0 → Fe 2+ + 2e − . At the cathodic sites, a reduction reaction occurs which, depending on the pH of the environment, can be hydrogen evolution (2H + + 2e − → H 2 ↑) or oxygen reduction [O 2 + 2H 2 O + 4e − → 4(OH) − ]. The electrodes liberated at the anode flow through the metal...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003672
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... inhibitors corrosion protection CORROSION is an oxidation reaction where the corroding metal is the anode in an electrochemical cell. In addition to the anode, there are three other components that are necessary for corrosion to occur: an aggressive environment, a cathode where the reduction reaction...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003615
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... and intermetallic particles can be anodic or cathodic relative to the matrix or can switch between the two with time as a result of selective dissolution. Anodic particles can be initiation sites for pitting corrosion, and cathodic particles can be active cathodes, supporting the cathodic reaction necessary...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003586
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... on metals. Electrode Reaction Thermodynamics and Kinetics in Corrosion Metallic corrosion is usually an electrochemical process. Electrochemical processes require anodes and cathodes in electrical contact as well as an ionic conduction path through an electrolyte. The electron flow between the anodic...