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cathodic reaction

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003584
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... transfer taking place at the electrode interface within the double layer and of mass transport at the vicinity of the electrode surface are discussed. The article describes the corrosion processes, which involve anodic and cathodic reactions at specific electrode sites. Some experimental methods for...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003579
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... Nernst equation. It describes galvanic cell reactions and corrosion reactions in an aqueous solution in an electrochemical cell. The article explores the most common cathodic reactions encountered in metallic corrosion in aqueous systems. The reactions included are proton reduction, water reduction...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003578
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... Abstract Electrochemical, or electrode, reactions occur with charge transfer between neutral or ionic reactants and a conducting material called the electrode. This article discusses cathodic reactions that result in reduction and anodic reactions that result in oxidation. It reviews the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003697
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... Abstract Cathodic protection is an electrochemical means of corrosion control in which the oxidation reaction in a galvanic cell is concentrated at the anode, which suppresses corrosion of the cathode in the same cell. This article provides a detailed discussion on the fundamentals and types of...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003583
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... corrosion process can be controlled by the electronic conductivity of passive films when the cathodic reaction occurs on the surface of the film and by activation control of corrosion. Passivation becomes thermodynamically possible when the corrosion potential exceeds the potential corresponding to the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004114
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... of electrons transferred per atom of metal consumed in the corrosion reaction; and F is Faraday's constant (96,500 coulombs per gram equivalent weight). For steel, this equates to a metal loss of 9.1 kg/A-yr (20.1 lb/A-yr). If the current can be measured then the metal loss, as a measure of...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003586
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... the rates of the oxidation and reduction reactions. When anodes are physically separated from cathodes, the current can be readily measured by replacing direct electrical contact with a zero-resistance ammeter (ZRA), The conversion of the reaction rate per unit area, J , from units of mol/cm 2 · s...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001336
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
... the weld. Inert gases are preferred for the GTAW process, because they minimize unwanted gas-metal reactions with the workpieces. A uniform laminar flow of gas from the gas cup would be ideal and, in fact, is usually achieved as long as there is no welding arc. However, the arc discharge rapidly heats...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004170
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... Abstract This article discusses the influence of the materials, design, package type, and environment on corrosion in microelectronics. It describes the common sources and mechanisms of corrosion in microelectronics, including anodic, cathodic, and electrolytic reactions resulting in uniform...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02a.a0006483
EISBN: 978-1-62708-207-5
..., magnetohydrodynamic forces, and cathode lining. It reviews the electrochemical reactions and thermodynamics for aluminum electrolysis. The article also describes the cell operations and cell stability, as well as the key indicators of cell performance. It schematically illustrates the typical costs producing aluminum...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003671
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... Abstract This article provides information on the thermodynamics and kinetics of high-temperature corrosion. The thermodynamics of high-temperature corrosion reactions reveals what reactions are possible under certain conditions and kinetics explains how fast these possible reactions will...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001291
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... macroparticle problem, they have other design constraints that must be evaluated, such as crucible reactions and heating and cooling cycle times. As of 1994, the most important applications of coatings produced by the vacuum arc process involve the reactive deposition of nitrides for extending the useful life...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003105
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... corrosion. Of the various bacteria in soils, the anaerobic sulfate-reducing bacteria are of greatest concern. These bacteria can act as depolarizers for the cathodic reaction H 2 O + e − → H 0 + OH − , and thereby allow corrosion to proceed in oxygen-free soils. It should be noted that the conditions...
Book Chapter

By R.G. Kelly
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003613
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... initiated, the flow of solution across the fully exposed surface generally acts to increase the propagation rate. This effect results from the increased flow on cathodic reactions on the fully exposed surface that are mass-transport controlled, such as oxygen reduction. As the cathodic reaction rate...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003709
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... o Corrosion I a > I c I a < I c e cell = 0 E > E Cu o E < E Ag o I a , current associated with the anodic reaction at the electrode; I c , current associated with the cathodic reaction at the electrode; I o , exchange...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003818
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... behavior of the coating will be strongly influenced by the relative polarity of tin and substrate, by the nature of any intermetallic layers formed by reactions between these, and by the extremely low rate of corrosion of tin in alkaline and mildly acidic media in the absence of oxygen or other cathode...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003043
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... applications of adhesive bonding. It discusses the types of adhesives, namely, epoxy adhesives, epoxy-phenolic adhesives, condensation-reaction PI adhesives, addition-reaction PI adhesives, bismaleimide adhesives, and structural adhesives. The article provides information on fastener selection considerations...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003701
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
.... These reactions occur at the cathodic site on the metal surface: (Eq 14) O 2 + 4 H + + 4 e − → 2 H 2 O             ( Reduction of oxygen in acid solution ) (Eq 15) O 2 + 2 H 2 O + 4 e − → 4 OH...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02b.a0006546
EISBN: 978-1-62708-210-5
... aluminum (solid line) with a curve for the applicable cathodic reaction (one of the representative dashed lines) determines the potential to which the aluminum is polarized, either by cathodic reaction on the aluminum itself or on another metal electrically connected to it. The potential to which the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 19
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1996
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v19.a0002388
EISBN: 978-1-62708-193-1
... cracks strongly depend on initial surface reactions, and thus the surface condition of the test specimens, particularly smooth specimens, has a significant effect on the test results. Smooth test specimens are often tested with a mechanically (machined or abraded) or (electro)chemically treated surface...