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catastrophic failure

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Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003243
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... Abstract Stress-corrosion cracking (SCC) occurs under service conditions, which can result, often without any prior warning, in catastrophic failure. Hydrogen embrittlement is distinguished from stress-corrosion cracking generally by the interactions of the specimens with applied currents. To...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006785
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... other process- and environment-related data is often the key to understanding why SCC occurred. Stress-corrosion cracking failures do not always result in catastrophic failures. The purpose of mechanical integrity and other inspection programs is to detect, and correct or mitigate, the presence...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003224
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... catastrophic failure of the wing through box (the structure at which the wings join to the fuselage). Failures were related to the choice of a very brittle material (D6AC high-strength steel) and a heat-treating procedure that produced a nonuniform microstructure. In 1988, the upper fuselage of a Boeing 737...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003058
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... conclusions about a fracture event, because a passing fracture front leaves a permanent record of its history in the form of topographic markings ( Ref 9 , 10 , 11 ). The FSM can be used to locate the failure origin and determine how the catastrophic crack developed under the influence of the applied and...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006754
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... in the various aspects of human relations and education, at the least. Failure analysis of a complex or catastrophic failure requires much more. People who perform failure analysis as part of their job function must have an awareness of how their legal obligations are defined. People who perform...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006753
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... formal discipline called “failure analysis” was introduced. Fig. 1 Crash of the Wright Flyer, 1908. Courtesy of the National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution, Photo A-42555-A Unfortunately, there are many dramatic examples of catastrophic failures that result in injury, loss of...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006764
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... weakening or failed structural components, alignment issues, bearing wear, shaft crack, imbalance. Indirect indication of degradation or failure May provide advance warning of degradation prior to catastrophic failure Piping systems, rotating machinery Leak detection—acoustic, pressure drop, or gas...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006755
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... bearing or bracket, is very obvious and sometimes catastrophic. Functional failure of a machine can apply to something as large as an airplane or as small as a nutcracker. The difficulty in determining the root cause of the failure increases with the complexity of the component or machine, but the root...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003225
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... catastrophic failure occurs. However, the rate of growth is usually slow at the beginning of fatigue life unless the stress is high. Most laboratory fatigue testing is done either with uniform axial loading or in uniform bending, thus producing only tensile and compressive stresses. The stress usually...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006778
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... of deformation evidenced by ductile materials prior to failure, ductile overload can often be less surprising and catastrophic than brittle failures. Ductile overload thus can be a more forgiving fracture mode than brittle fracture. Materials that exhibit yielding prior to fracture also can...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006780
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... Abstract The principal types of elevated-temperature mechanical failure are creep and stress rupture, stress relaxation, low- and high-cycle fatigue, thermal fatigue, tension overload, and combinations of these, as modified by environment. This article briefly reviews the applied aspects of...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006791
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... can cause rapid and sometimes catastrophic failures ( Ref 2 ). This can occur in metal forming, piston rings, skirts and cylinders, chains, cams and follower bearings, and gears ( Ref 26 ). The normal break-in is a form of mild adhesive wear. Scuffing usually refers to moderate adhesive wear...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006783
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... Abstract Corrosion is the electrochemical reaction of a material and its environment. This article addresses those forms of corrosion that contribute directly to the failure of metal parts or that render them susceptible to failure by some other mechanism. Various forms of corrosion covered are...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006772
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... Abstract Failure analysis is generally defined as the investigation and analysis of parts or structures that have failed or appeared to have failed to perform their intended duty. Methods of field inspection and initial examination are also critical factors for both reconstruction analysts and...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006774
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... Abstract Engineering component and structure failures manifest through many mechanisms but are most often associated with fracture in one or more forms. This article introduces the subject of fractography and aspects of how it is used in failure analysis. The basic types of fracture processes...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006790
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... fatigue, creep, or environmentally-assisted cracking. Corrosion and wear are another form of progressive material alteration or removal that can lead to failure or obsolescence. This article primarily covers the topic of abrasive wear failures, covering the general classification of wear. It also...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006789
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... parameters on the material response is presented using the wear map concept, which is very useful and informative in several respects. The article concludes with guidelines for the selection of suitable surface treatments to avoid wear failures. abrasive wear fretting wear rolling-sliding wear solid...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006793
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
..., the bodies tend to be large and contact in a well-defined location in a controlled way, unlike erosion where the eroding particles are small and interact randomly with the target surface. There are many industrial situations in which impacting bodies are employed where failures due to wear can be...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006829
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... the experimental results, map approach, measurement, mechanism, and prevention of fretting wear. This review is followed by several examples of failures related to fretting wear. corrosion fretting wear mechanical components steel wear debris wear prevention FRETTING IS A WEAR...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006671
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... water, under an applied stress can cause slow crack growth, historically termed static fatigue, and, ultimately, catastrophic failure in a process analogous to stress-corrosion cracking in metals and craze cracking in polymers. The finer the surface finish, the more resistant to failure a ceramic will...