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casting pores

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Published: 01 December 2004
Fig. 32 Pores formed by gas evolution in the casting. (a) Light micrograph of a pore in aluminum-silicon alloy. Etchant: 0.5% HF. Source: Ref 22 . (b) Scanning electron microscopy image of pore in unmodified aluminum-silicon alloy. Source: Ref 23 More
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Published: 01 December 2004
Fig. 36 Microstructure showing pores caused by investment casting. (a) 40× (b) 400× More
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Published: 01 December 2008
precisely controlled (Source: Ref 22 ). Fatigue specimens were cycled to failure, and the fracture initiation site was characterized according to the type of defect (pore or oxide inclusion) or microstructural feature (slip plane) present at the initiation site. The graph indicates that, for these castings More
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Published: 30 August 2021
of the crack-initiation sites below the surface (lower part of image) coinciding with a casting pore (arrow). (d) Finite-element stress map showing location of maximum stress coinciding with crack initiation More
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Published: 01 December 2008
Fig. 5 Pore volume fraction in A356 alloy castings. Source: Ref 34 More
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Published: 01 December 2008
Fig. 12 Pore size in A356 alloy castings. Source: Ref 25 More
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Published: 31 December 2017
Fig. 7 Typical solidification defects in aluminum-silicon castings. (a) Gas pores. (b) Cavity shrinkages. (c) Bifilms More
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Published: 30 November 2018
Fig. 4 Pore structure of investment-cast aluminum foam More
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Published: 01 December 2009
Fig. 4 Virtual aluminum castings process flow for ng local characteristic pore size and local fatigue strength More
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005293
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... Abstract Hot isostatic pressing (HIP) is used to eliminate porosity in castings. This article provides a history and an overview of the HIP system. It illustrates the reasons for using HIP and discusses the criteria for selecting HIP process parameters. The main mechanisms by which pores...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22b.a0005520
EISBN: 978-1-62708-197-9
... OF CASTING is normally thought of as a transition from liquid to solid; however, in most instances a third gas phase forms, termed porosity. Pores form due to inadequate feeding of the volumetric change from liquid to solid and the partitioning of solutes such as hydrogen, nitrogen, and oxygen...
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Published: 01 December 2008
Fig. 14 Bronze casting with sponge porosity that was not removed by HIP. The immediate proximity of the pores to the as-cast surface indicates that this is an interconnected network of porosity that broke through to the surface of the casting. As a result, high-pressure argon was able More
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005220
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... easier, is still not sufficiently easy to make pore nucleation possible in cast products ( Ref 1 ). Thus, nucleation of porosity by any conceivable process is almost certainly impossible. In other words, interfaces in atomic contact are probably impossible to separate in any practical circumstance...
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Published: 01 December 2008
Fig. 2 Typical porosity configurations in aluminum-silicon casting alloys. (a) Shrinkage pore found within a casting. (b) Gas pore in an Al-8% Si alloy. (c) Microporosity (gas plus shrinkage). (d) Microporosity (gas plus shrinkage). Source: Ref 2 More
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Published: 01 December 2008
Fig. 13 Schematic showing the effect of HIP on a pore that is connected to the surface of a casting. The inert gas used as a pressurization medium easily penetrates the internal pore network. Because the pressure of the gas within the pore interior is equal to the applied external pressure More
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Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 24 SEM images from fracture surface of aluminum die casting. (a) 20.5×. (b) Shrinkage pores visible as dendritic structure. 164×. (c) View showing gas pore and intercellular fracture. 410×. (d) Mixture of gas (smooth, spherical) pores and shrinkage pores. 410× More
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Published: 01 November 2010
Fig. 11 Comparisons of multiscale simulations of pore morphology with three wedge casting experiments. (a), (b), and (c) are x-ray tomography images of pores in Al-4Cu, Al-7Si, and Al-7.5Si-3.5Cu, respectively. (d), (e), and (f) are simulated pores in these three alloys. Source: Ref 68 More
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Published: 01 December 2004
Fig. 28 Use of image processing in estimating size distributions of spherical particles. (a) Unetched microstructure of high-pressure die-cast AM60 Mg-alloy depicting round gas (air) pores and cracklike shrinkage pores. (b) The microstructure in (a) with shrinkage pores removed by using image More
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005302
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... Abstract Grain refinement in aluminum casting alloys tends to reduce the amount of porosity and the size of the pores and to improve mechanical properties, especially fatigue strength. This article provides information on measurement of grain size in alloys and describes the mechanisms of grain...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005222
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... liquid pools, shrinkage generates pores filled with gases. It is the interplay of these two mechanisms that gives rise to porosity in a casting. Figure 1 illustrates gas porosity and shrinkage porosity in an aluminum AA 5182 remelt secondary ingot. Gas porosity is usually spherical...