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case hardening

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005956
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... Abstract The process of case hardening of steel includes three consecutive steps of heat treatment: heating; the thermochemical process with the enrichment of the surface area during the carburizing or carbonitriding stage with carbon and nitrogen; and the subsequent quenching process for...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005929
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... Abstract This article provides information on the salt baths used for a variety of heat treatments, including heating, quenching, interrupted quenching (austempering and martempering), case hardening, and tempering. It describes two general types of salt bath systems for steel hardening: the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005936
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... Abstract In the case of steels, heat treatment plays a fundamental role because no other process step can manipulate the microstructure in order to fulfill such a wide variety of possible in-service conditions. This article addresses heat treatment with regard to hardening and subsequent...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003197
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... Abstract Case hardening is defined as a process by which a ferrous material is hardened in such a manner that the surface layer, known as the case, becomes substantially harder than the remaining material, known as the core. This article discusses the equipment required, process variables...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001306
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... (electrical steels). This article provides a detailed discussion on the various surface treatments, including cleaning, nitriding, carburizing, coating, and plating, performed on specialty steels. carburizing case hardening cleaning coating corrosion resistance deburring electrical steels ferrous...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0001832
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... analysis is necessary to reveal stress concentrations, material imperfections, the presence of surface coatings, case-hardened regions, welds, and other structural details that contribute to cracking. The general level of stress, the relative ductility of the material, and the type of loading (torsion...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0001833
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... background obscured some of the detail. A clear picture resulted when the specimen was placed on black paper (b), which eliminated the lens flare. Light fractographs. Both 10× Etched sections are best photographed with vertical illumination, which is perpendicular at the center or hardened cases...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005660
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
... materials (e.g., nanomaterials) for medical devices underscores the interdisciplinary framework of medical device technology today. Figure 1 illustrates the traditional role that materials have played in the restoration of anatomic soft or hard tissue, as in the case of orthopaedic implant devices (i.e...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006785
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... conditions commonly associated with the development of SCC, although not all, and numerous case studies. engineering alloys metallic components SCC mitigation stress-corrosion cracking CORROSION is the deterioration of a material due to its environment. Although corrosion is often thought of as...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003245
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
..., namely mounting, grinding, polishing, and etching involved in the microstructural analysis of carbon and alloy steels, case hardening steels, cast iron, ferrous powder metallurgy alloys, wrought and cast stainless steels, tool materials, steel castings, iron-chromium-nickel heat-resistant casting alloys...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005343
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... test data. It concludes with information on case studies that show how the methodology is adapted for differing materials, failure mechanisms, and failure circumstances. casting chemical analysis data analysis failure analysis fractography mechanical testing metallography aluminum bracket...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005934
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... cooling curve is calculated from: (Eq 3) q = Δ t C T where Δ t is the time step used for computer data acquisition of the experimental cooling curves. In such cases, the time step is constant and depends on the data-acquisition rate. Otherwise, the time step between each incremental...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006268
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
... ). The Al-Mg-Si alloys with a magnesium-silicon atomic ratio of 2 are called balanced. All other compositions are either excess-silicon or excess-magnesium alloys. In casting alloys, the silicon content ranges between 5 and 13 wt% and, in special cases, to above 20 wt%, while magnesium contents are...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003103
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... an H-band that defines these limits. It is often necessary to determine the hardenability of the high-carbon case regions of carburized steels. Such information is important in controlling carburizing and quenching practice and in determining the ability of a specific steel to meet the hardness...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003180
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... metals, detailing the major aspects of forming, including formability, lubrication, and forming methods and tools. The effect of factors such as alloy condition, cold reduction, forming direction (in the case of heat-resistant alloys) and temperature (in the case of refractory metals) on formability is...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006276
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
... specified in excess of the copper content. An exception to this definition occurs in the case of some cast copper-lead alloys, where the lead slightly exceeds the copper content in certain alloys that are commonly designated as copper alloys (e.g., alloy C98840 containing 44.0 to 58.0 Pb). The first...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006287
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
... present also contain magnesium, so that during solid-state heating they form Al 12 Mg 2 Cr, which also has very low-equilibrium solid solubility. In the case of many compositions containing manganese, iron and silicon also are present and form the quaternary phase Al 12 (Fe,Mn) 3 Si. There are a few...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003200
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... Progressive Spinning Combination progressive-spinning The selection of the appropriate method depends on the shape, size, and composition of the workpiece; the area to be hardened; the depth of case required; and the number of pieces to be hardened. Several different fuel gases are...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006285
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
... formed by prior processing. Depending on the alloy elements, the temperature range is usually above 500 °C (930 °F), and the soaking time lasts from 10 s to several minutes, depending on the phase size, distribution, and diffusivity of the elements involved. In some cases, alloys can be quenched...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006266
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
... properties of wrought alloys. Cast products, in turn, are produced by remelting ingots created from elemental and revert stock, where the structure, properties, and cleanliness are a direct result of the specific casting process that produces the final product form. In this case, there is less opportunity to...